Armistice The Endgame of WW1 First World War Documentary Timeline

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Armistice Day the 11th of November 1980 the first world war officially ended at 11 o'clock a moment we solemnly marked each year in acts of remembrance but less familiar to us today is how and why the armistice came about this film unravels World War Ones bitter end again a story of wounded egos and brinksmanship behind the lines as generals haggled over the terms of the peace while at the front the soldiers fought on sustaining ever greater losses the central character is erich ludendorff after 1916 effectively Germany's military dictator his will drove the Reich towards total victory his loss of nerve then plunged Germany to total defeat historians and journalists like to explain why Wars stopped but endings are equally important how one war ends can help explain why the next war breaks out the war of 1914 18 was supposed to be the war to end all wars but in its ending it sowed the seeds of an even more appalling conflict just two decades later if we want to understand that larger tragedy I believe we need to unravel the extraordinary story of the armistice [Music] [Music] our story begins and ends in a railway carriage here in the early hours of the 11th of November 1918 the Germans sat down with the Allies to sign an armistice an armistice is usually just an agreement to stop fighting to create a breathing space in which a peace treaty can be negotiated but the Armistice of 1918 went a lot further the terms included not only evacuating all Germany's conquests in France and Belgium but also allowing the Allied armies to occupy Germany west of the Rhine the Germans also had to surrender 30,000 machineguns 5000 cannon 1700 planes and all their u-boats in effect the entire German capacity to wage war these were exceptionally harsh terms Germany had embarked on war determined to become a world power equal to the British Empire and in four years of fighting the German army had never been pushed off French soil yet this armistice imposed nothing less than Germany's object surrender the question is why the answer is rooted in earlier events in the war and Germany's first bid for total victory we need to go back to August 1914 to another train thundering east across Germany through the night the First World War had just begun in the West the Germans had invaded Belgium and France in the east Frances a la Czarist Russia was invading Germany nothing was allowed to get in the trains way signals were cleared point to a set other trains sidelined on board were two men who would shape Germany's war in 1914 and even more decisively four years later Germany had gambled on winning the war in a few months on its Western Front a massive right hook through Belgium towards Paris was designed to knock France out of war in August 1914 that part of the plan seemed to be going well but Germany was also fighting on its Eastern Front and there the situation was grim the Russian armies were surging into German territory in East Prussia and German field commanders had panicked talking of wholesale retreat now new leaders were needed to save the rice one of the men the German supreme command turned to was a figurehead to raise morale Powell von Hindenburg was a retired veteran of crusher's great victory against France in 1870 and renowned as a die-hard patriot the other general was very different an up-and-coming strategist Eric Ludendorff had just impressed the German supreme command by capturing the Belgian stronghold of the edge Ludendorff with a complex personality meticulous workaholic and regularly top of his class as a military cadet he drove hard compromised rarely and lived on his nerves but Ludendorff also had a very vulnerable human side he'd fallen in love in his forties with a divorcee Margaretta he'd married her and become a devoted father to three stepsons as patriotic Germans the boys all fought in the war for the fatherland and in time their fate would be entangled with loot indoors under the towering medieval castle built by the Teutonic Knights at marienburg Ludendorff and Hindenburg took command at the shaken and vastly outnumbered German Eighth Army instead of being cowed by the pincer-like approach of two Russian armies Ludendorff quickly saw the chance of dealing first with the one in the south and then turning on the other army in the north [Music] the battle lasted just five days by the end of August 1914 the Russians had been surrounded and destroyed just a few miles from the battlefield was the hamlet of Tannenberg we're in 1410 the Teutonic Knights some of them Hindenburg's ancestors had been obliterated by the Slavs a Second Battle of Tannenberg with the tables turned was then sweet revenge for the Germans for the Germans and their allies this success came at exactly the right time Germany's bid for a decisive victory in the West had been blocked by the French and British so the German people now facing a long war seized on the good news from the east and the supreme command hyped it up as a massive triumph for two years Ludendorff and Hindenburg won a series of victories against Russia on Germany's Eastern Front but none of these battles was decisive because Germany was still concentrating most of its resources on crushing France during 1915 the Western Front had bogged down into a static war of attrition in the trenches but in 1916 the Germans once again went for the jugular seeking the victory that had eluded them so far they mounted an all-out assault on their dun France's most sensitive point they're done on the mers River was a great fortress since the days of louis xiv once committed here the french they were sure could be bled white the germans brought up the fearsome artillery more than 1,200 guns including massive big bertha mortars codename for the operation was direct place execution and it was France's High Command had been astonishingly complacent they'd ignored signs of a German buildup and failed to strengthen outlying forts the French was soon reeling but rather like Ludendorff at Tannenberg one General turned the crisis around when the call came to defend Verdun Philopator was absent without leave his aide had to rush to Paris to drag him away from his mistress pét'a was unconventional he came from peasant stock and had led at the front by example this was a soldier soldier harrowed by the eyes of men returning from combat who said Peter stared into space as if transfixed by a vision of terror [Music] practical and realistic pate are reinforced key forts and organized the French artillery into a concentrated system of firepower directed at wherever the Germans attempt equally important he turned the clogged narrow road that led to Vader into a meticulously run supply lifeline but more was needed to divert German resources from the assault on Verdun the French demanded that their ally Britain launch a major offensive to the north this was the Battle of the Somme 60,000 British troops were killed or wounded on the opening day the greatest disaster in the history of the British Army the battle then dragged on fruitlessly for months becoming a byword for mindless slaughter the British commander Douglas Haig bore much of the blame a do-er Scotsman he was a veteran of Sudan and the Boer War but on the Western Front he seemed tied to a plan it was tactics before troops rather like Ludendorff politicians in London called Haig the butcher yet for all the criticism the psalm did serve its purpose it helped to relieve pressure on the French back at Verdun there both sides were now evenly matched in firepower the casualty levels became appalling around 800,000 French and Germans were killed or wounded even more than the psalm this was the first world war in all its horror like the struggle for Stalingrad in the next war the stakes and the symbolism had become immense the battle over da finally ended in December 1916 and it was the Germans who'd been bled to exhaustion Germany's catastrophic failure at Verdun had far-reaching consequences it forced a shake-up of the supreme command the real power in the German Reich controlling practically every aspect of German life economy and administration propaganda and censorship it was answerable only to the German monarch kaiser wilhelm ii the Kaiser now made a fateful decision he turned to Hindenburg and Ludendorff to head the all-powerful supreme command in reality that meant the day-to-day control of Germany in its war had been placed in the hands of one man the supreme command ran the show and the supreme command was really run by Ludendorff the Kaiser and Hindenburg were nominally his superiors but it was Ludendorff who controlled the detail of the war from Flanders right down to the Balkans in all but name Ludendorff was the dictator of Germany and he was the dictator searching for a decisive blow to win the war [Music] in January 1917 Ludendorff gambled on an all-out u-boat campaign hoping to cut off Britain's supply lines yet u-boat aggression in the Atlantic brought American either to neutral into the war against Germany the USA gradually mobilized all its vast economic resources for the Allied war effort to make the world safe for democracy in the words of its President Woodrow Wilson [Music] America's entry into the war tightened the Allied blockade of Germany and it's fresh manpower promised in time to decisively tip the balance of forces in Europe against Germany this was the moment when Ludendorff should probably have sought a compromise peace but he still hankered after a decisive tannenberg style victory in the West he aimed to make Belgium and northeastern France part of the German Reich for him anything less than that would be a defeat if Germany makes peace without profit then Germany has lost the war [Music] here at his headquarters in Spa in Belgium Ludendorff believed he could still achieve Germany's war aims of becoming a global power to match the British Empire and he calculated that he had one last opportunity Ludendorff reason that it would take time for the Americans to make their presence felt because the US was only just starting to train an army and there was further clause in 1917 the war in the East was finally bearing fruit the Russian economy had collapsed the army was in revolt and the country disintegrated into revolution Russia's people had been pushed too far this sudden collapse of a great power should have served as a warning to Ludendorff but it simply didn't register instead he saw Russia's revolution as the last chance for a German victory in the West Ludendorff was able to pull some 40 army divisions out of the east and send them to the Western Front this gave Germany numerical superiority there for the first time since 1914 he planned to mobilize these forces in a massive push towards Paris Ludendorff worked relentlessly around the clock personally supervising strategy and micromanaging logistics and even training Ludendorff was outwardly confident but as ever inwardly bondage when asked what would happen if the great offensive failed Ludendorff glowered Dan was deutschland eben surrender game then Germany will just have to go at dawn on the 21st of March 1918 the static trench war of the previous three years would change forever Ludendorff unleash decoy sir slapped the kaisers back unlike earlier offensives the artillery softening up short only five hours to retain surprise then the storm troops advanced just behind a carefully calibrated creeping barrage ready to capture the enemy trenches while their defenders with still undercover the push along the psalm was a great success routing the British fifth Army Ludendorff offensive had suddenly broken the stalemate of the trenches the German surge even threatened to split the British Army from the French in London Prime Minister David Lloyd George was sure that would be disastrous on March the 26th the Allied commanders held a crisis meeting here at Doulos shells were falling near the town and the atmosphere was close to panic Pater was genuinely demoralized it seemed the British Army was falling apart and he doubted that Haig had any answers Haig was under pressure he knew that many in the war cabinet in London wanted to sack him and he had little confidence in the French generals tavern keepers as he once called them certainly he'd lost confidence in Pater who seemed to him totally defeatist so the initial exchanges that do loss were very tense Hey kept talking about his fifth army Peter said it no longer existed eventually a compromise was thrashed out the British and French would jointly defend the crucial railway junction at a miaar key to holding their front together and to coordinate the armies and their bickering commanders the french general ferdinand FOSS Patents great rival was appointed commander-in-chief of the Allied forces this was a vital turning point it had taken imminent defeat to make the two nations start fighting as one the Allies finally held the line in sufficient numbers just outside am young but in April Ludendorff mounted a new assault to the north in Flanders firing off some 40,000 gas shells in four months from March to July 1918 he launched five great events it's completely redrawing the western front which had hardly moved since the end of 1914 at one point the Germans had come within 60 miles of Peretz yet each stab westwards was weaker than the one before because Germany was simply running out of men of the initial assault strength of 1.4 million soldiers more than one-fifth were killed wounded or missing after two weeks German morale began to crumble Ludendorff behind the lines in his headquarters could not appreciate what was happening to the men he had no experience of the human cost of his strategy the blood and mud the cold and wet the excrement and rotting bodies he read of casualty figures with icy composure war conceals men that is its nature loot endorsed world was one of crisp uniforms and good dinners a war fought by phone telegram and dispatches and marked not by corpses riddled with bullets but maps filled with colored pins but then catastrophic Lee for the most powerful man in Germany the real war suddenly broke through [Applause] at the end of March Ludendorff got into his staff car he was driven across the old Somme battlefield through the two trench systems in which the opponents had faced each other for so long the impression it made was great a strip many miles in width bleak and devastated by the roadside Ludendorff was met by grim-faced officers they walked across a muddy field toward an open grave marked by a rough wooden cross Ludendorff leaned forward to read the inscription in English here rest to German flying officers a soldier pointed uneasily to where the exhumed bodies lay under a tarpaulin Ludendorff nodded and walked over slowly a corner of the tarpaulin was pulled back and he looked down at the face of his dead stepson arey Germany's war leader stood there pathetically shoulders slumped fighting back the tears for the first time Ludendorff was face to face with the intimate suffering of war this was about flesh and blood not just grand strategy ludendorff had always kept his life in separate compartments but now his grief as a father began to shake his grip as a general while he sought the willpower to cope with wars unknown psychological forces his great offensive was running out of steam with their numbers depleted many German soldiers deserted or route to the next suicidal assault this was a decisive moment for the success of the German war effort the question was whether Germany's leaders Ludendorff or his old partner Hindenburg could see it Ludendorff's intense inner anguish was becoming more and more apparent when one star father came to his office to warn him about the collapse of troop morale Ludendorff bawled him out what is the purpose of your drivel what do you expect me to do make peace at any price Ludendorff was indeed denial and there was no one who could make him rethink certainly not Hindenburg his forte was doing what he was told not thinking outside the box confident and patriotic as ever Hindenburg offered no alternative as Germany lurched towards disaster it wasn't just the German troops who were losing heart the homefront was seething with discontent because of rising food prices caused by poor harvests and the Allied blockade strikes were being whipped up by socialist and communist agitators and now the Allies reviving under the command of the breezy and confident Fache took the offensive on the 8th of August the British blasted through the Germans east of amia tanks we used to crush the barbed wire and behind them well armed assault platoons operated fluidly 16,000 demoralized Germans simply laid down their arms the tide had turned hey who'd struggled to cope with trench warfare was now in his element in this newly mobile conflict redeeming his reputation as commander even cavalry reappeared on the battlefield ideal for pursuing a retreating enemy Ludendorff was shaken to the core as a leader he had willed victory but his men could not deliver it the acid of dapped was rotting his confidence he called August the eighth the black day of the German army our war machine is no longer working leadership is like an irresponsible game of chance the fate of the German nation is too high a stake for me to play the war must be ended but how could Ludendorff now end the war one option was to pull his troops back to fortified rear lines but that would mean abandoning the territory taken in 1918 and this Ludendorff would not do instead he insisted the troops must hold all the ground just gained in France while Germany's diplomats negotiated a favorable peace it would prove a terrible misjudgment Germany's war and Ludendorff's mind were falling apart Ludendorff was now close to breakdown sometimes in tears in secret he kept visiting the grave of his stepson Erik whose body had not been taken back to his mother in Berlin if I didn't send him to you then that was pure selfishness I wanted to keep him here I go to him often you can rest assured that he is at peace and it's a lovely feeling to have him here Ludendorff's worried staff called in a psychiatrist meanwhile at the front german combat battalions were at half strength deserters roamed the rear areas and those that remained faced renewed on swords it was Britain and France that now had guns tanks and supplies in profusion and could fight the kind of mobile war Ludendorff had pioneered in March and the Americans were coming into the lie in strength [Music] in mid-september they broke through around Samael taking 15,000 more German prisoners the final straw came on September the 28th ludendorf learned at Bulgaria one of Germany's key remaining allies was asking for peace some claimed that Ludendorff had a fit rolling around on the floor his doctor always denied it but what is quite clear is that you know sinners but finally [Music] at 6:00 that evening Ludendorff left his office in the hotel Britannic and came down one floor to Hindenburg's room he told Hindenburg the military situation was untenable and that Germany must ask for an immediate ceasefire an armistice on October the 1st Ludendorff announced his plan to stop the fighting - tearful senior officers one recalled his grief-stricken face pale but with head held high truly a beautiful Germanic era I could only think of Siegfried with his death wound in the back from hardened Speer this was a reference to the tragic finale of vogner's Gerda Demerol twilight of the Gods and it was entirely because a stab in the back would become Ludendorff swonsong he blamed all of Germany's disasters on the political left declaring to his staff our own army is badly infected with the poison of communist socialist ideas the troops can no longer be relied upon since August the 8th things have gone downhill rapidly Ludendorff was claiming that the soldiers at the front had been undermined by treacherous agitators at home the idea of Germany's betrayal by the left the undefeated army succumbing to a stab in the back had been born in fact Germany's collapse was largely Ludendorff's fault he could have tried to end the war from a position of strength in the spring all retreated to secure lines in August and given his troops bred spite to hold on into 1919 instead he waited till the army was on the back foot and the home front was in revolt then panicked and blamed the whole collapse on the political left [Music] desperately trying to retrieve the situation ludendorf now hatched an extraordinary new plan he proposed that Germany appeal over the heads of Britain and France directly to the American President Woodrow Wilson who he believed would offer softer peace terms and he wanted to create a new civilian government accountable to Germany's Parliament the rice dog to conduct the negotiations Ludendorff of course didn't have a democratic bone in his body this was simply cunning realpolitik he calculated that civilians would get a better deal from the Americans than militaristic autocrats like himself and equally important by demanding that the civilians now raise the white flag rather than the army he aim to save face shifting the blame for ending the war away from the supreme command Ludendorff had gambled wrongly in the spring of 1918 on military victory the question now was whether his political strategy would prove any more effective the new German government's exchange of notes with Wilson was like a game of diplomatic tennis that went on all through October but Ludendorff hadn't got the measure of the American president Wilson played a much harder game than he expected Wilson was a bit of a control freak he composed the American messages to Germany himself on his own typewriter the good faith of any discussion would manifestly depend upon the consent of the central powers immediately to withdraw their forces everywhere from invaded territory so much for Lupin doors hopes of hanging on to chunks of France Wilson's second mode struck an even more damaging blow at the German Reich effectively demanding the abdication of the Kaiser when the Kaiser received Wilson's note he was furious telling an aide read it it aims directly at the overthrow of my house the complete overthrow of the institution of Maliki after Wilson's second note Ludendorff instability itself at the heart of the German regime began to realize the mess he'd got Germany into all his calculations had gone wrong back at the front the German army was disintegrating and the Allied onslaught continued with mounting ferocity during the five weeks between Germany asking for an armistice and the actual signature half a million soldiers were killed or wounded even though both the German and allied high command's knew that a ceasefire could be imminent the huge bloodshed can be explained in part by the more open style of warfare but there were other factors including the entry of the Americans into the war here were fresh troops a quarter of a million landing in France every month often over-exuberant and under trained the Americans took disproportionate casualties compared to their more war-weary allies the thrusts between the river MERS and the Argonne forest in late September cost the Americans an estimated 75 thousand casualties some of the worst figures for any Army in the war those lucky enough to live through it also had to survive a flu pandemic which was sweeping through the military hospitals meanwhile the British Army had become a ruthlessly efficient fighting machine whether that was worth the butcher's bill along the way will always be a matter of debate from Vord after Flanders the Germans were driven back in disarray in Hague's words we have got the enemy down and my plan is to go on hitting him as hard as we possibly can to eat begs for mercy the allied generals still assumed the war would drag on into 1919 they didn't know for certain whether Germany would accept terms and they wanted to ensure that if the fighting resumed they would come out on top so the deaths in those last five weeks though tragic in human terms were not without point diplomatically [Music] in late October the Allied commanders met face to face once again pater set out the French plan for a harsh armistice stripping Germany of its heavy armaments occupying the left bank of the Rhine and imposing huge reparations privately paid hours even pleading with Fache to postpone the armistice why because Peter had been planning a highly symbolic recapture of the lorraine region a coup de Grasse set for the 14th of november actually invading German territory with the knockout blow inflicted by the French army not the snooty British or the cocky Americans in Washington Wilson was now under intense pressure at home and from his allies to press for what amounted to total German surrender [Music] in his third note the president told Berlin bluntly that Germany must become a real democracy if the United States had to deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany it must demand not peace negotiations but surrender the word surrender had the effect of blowing apart the fragile alliance in Germany between the civilians and the military Ludendorff had never envisaged surrender he now issued a proclamation to his troops to defy the government he himself had helped create and fight on to the death Wilson's answer is a demand for unconditional surrender it is thus unacceptable to us soldiers [Music] but now the Kaiser intervened in a tetchy meeting he blamed the supreme command for losing him the wall Hindenburg stood by his Kaiser and didn't come to Ludendorff's defense Ludendorff tendered his resignation and the Kaiser accepted Ludendorff had failed to get the armistice he wanted and then despite a frantic u-turn had failed to stop the armistice he didn't want the arrogance of power bred by two years as military dictator had corroded his judgment for Germany the consequences of this almost vagnie Rhian tragedy would dire ludendorf had planned to mount a limited revolution from above to head off a full-scale revolution from below but his attempt at a controlled regime change was backfiring disastrously for years Germany had been like a pressure cooker heated up for war but with the lid kept tightly shut by autocratic rule now people learnt to their amazement after all the propaganda that the war was effectively lost and at the same time the autocratic lid was gradually being prized off not surprisingly the steam in the pressure cooker exploded it started in the port city of Kiel on the north sea where sailors mutinied hoisted the red flag and demanded a Socialist Republic within a week the movement had spread through Germany even down to Catholic conservative Bavaria the common demand was for the Kaiser to abdicate on November the 9th revolution exploded in hitherto safe Berlin thousands of workers and their families unarmed but militant were marching on the city centre soldiers were deserting to join them declaring a republic and giving the socialists power seemed the only way to avert a Bolshevik style revolution next morning the Kaiser was driven across the border into neutral Holland where he would spend the rest of his days in exile the abdication paved the way for finally signing the armistice and Germany's total collapse enabled the Allies to turn the screw imposing the punitive terms that Pater had proposed when hoping to delay peace at 512 a.m. on the 11th of November the Germans signed the armistice terms in front of Fache Ludendorff the architect of German defeat was of course nowhere to be seen the senior German delegate tried to salvage some pride a nation of 70 million suffers but does not die Fache was not impressed Fumiya he said loftily anxious to end the meeting and get some sleep the armistice terms had been negotiated at the very top and in secret soldiers in the trenches on both sides was stunned to hear the news but the butchery at the front was not finished fighting was ordered to continue right up to the 11th hour [Music] 2738 men lost their lives on the last day of the war on the streets of London Paris in New York there was an outpouring of relief but in Germany the atmosphere was very different there was relief yes that the great war was finally over but Civil War seemed about to begin for years the Germans had been insulated from reality by Ludendorff's military dictatorship suddenly their country and all that they'd fought for had been ripped apart in just a few weeks and many conservative Germans simply could not reconcile themselves to what had happened among them was a corporal recovering in hospital after being caught in a British gas attack near Ypres in mid-october Adolf Hitler heard talk of strikes of ferment in the Navy but there was nothing specific and temporarily blinded he couldn't read the newspapers on November the 10th however the patients were assembled in the whole of the hospital and an elderly pastor trembling with shock gave them up-to-date news the Emperor had gone Germany was a republic the war had been lost everything went black before my eyes I staggered back to the dormitory threw myself on the bunk and buried my burning head in my blanket ever since the day when I had stood at my mother's grave I had not wept but now I could not restrain myself for this that the German soldiers stood fast in the heat of the Sun and the blizzards of winter [Music] Hitler like millions of Germans eagerly swallowed Ludendorff's line about the undefeated army stabbed in the back by Marxists at home looking back Hitler saw November 1918 as a turning point in his life the moment of betrayal that had to be avenged the armistice proved to be the basic draft of the peace terms the Treaty of Versailles then filled out the details although the harsh peace was followed by economic crisis in Germany by the mid-1920s the situation seemed to be more stable France and Germany reached out to each other signing treaties of friendship brokered by Britain but many Germans could not come to terms with 1918 and one of them was Luton door he threw in his locked with the Nazis joining X corporal Hitler in the abortive Munich buh of 1923 just over a year later he was the Nazi nominee for president but it was Ludendorff old Foyle the perennial frontman Hindenburg who was elected president embittered with Hitler and Hindenburg Ludendorff retreated into fanatical isolation rioting cranked pamphlets against the Jews the Jesuits and the Masons his irrational side had now taken full hold Germany salvaged some pride through a war memorial at Annenberg the spectacular triumph of 1914 on the Eastern Front and it was unveiled by President Hindenburg on September the 18th 1927 his 80th birthday the monument looked like a cross between Stonehenge a Teutonic castle and Evolved Neri and set [Music] when Hindenburg died in 1934 the Tannenberg memorial was rededicated as his mausoleum by Hitler now Germany's Chancellor tannenberg became a monument of German pride a site for veterans reunions and a place of pilgrimage for German schoolchildren it evoked the glories of 1914 that turned to ashes four years later memorial to a lost victory that had to be redeemed [Music] when corporal Hitler got his revenge in 1940 France still devastated by its Pyrrhic victory in 1918 was in no mood to fight Hitler forced the French to sign the armistice of 1940 in the very same railway carriage where Germany had been humiliated in 1918 the site had become a great memorial to French victory now a gloating Hitler sat in the chair Fache had used to stare down the German delegates after the French had capitulated the Germans systematically blew up the scene of their earlier humiliation but not everything was destroyed the Germans left just the statue of marshal Fache allowing him as it were to preside over a wasteland ironically Fache himself had predicted gravely in 1919 this is not peace it is an armistice for 20 years the Germans took the railway carriage back to Berlin as a trophy of war the carriage we see today is a replica the original was blown up by the SS in the last weeks of the war that was also the fate of Tannenberg in January 1945 as Hitler phased his urn Goethe Demerol he had the memorial blown up to save it from falling into the hands of the Red Army for defeat in the second war was even more devastating for Germany than the first in the carve up of Germany that followed 1945 most of East Prussia heartland of the Rye he became part of Poland [Music] the fate of these two memorials Compiegne destroyed then rebuilt tannenberg razed to the ground reminds us that the 11th of november 1918 was a flawed piece the problem I think with the Armistice was that it reflected an imbalance of power in Europe that could not be sustained it was the product of the total collapse of Germany brought on by Ludendorff Ali's and that's why the armistice was not as Lloyd George hoped a peace to end all wars it was as far feared tempura suits fun in a long and bloody struggle for the mastery of Europe [Music] you [Music]

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