Dead Sea Scrolls — Robert Eisenman Epitome 4

let's review what happened because it's important to know my curve so the scrolls were found in 1947 now we don't know if they were found before them there are some indication that they may have been found earlier than that that the person who supposedly has the mythology went a little better would pull away or whatever Shepard we stereotypes of our favorite later things of these stories turned out not to be a warrior you know or someone like that at all he was a grown man and he was a known treasure hunter and he was always the full of things and as the story goes he and another a friend of his were tending flocks out in that area and they weren't looking for lost sheep as it turned out but on the other side of it maybe they weren't you know he may have just been in his spare time looking for things in caves but as the story goes and the most famous presentation of the price is rally but it's rallying scholar you got yet a deep black sir was one of the people who was an actor in this drama cuz his father's name was he lieutenant and he was the professor of hospital studies archaeology at the Hebrew University his father and his son succeeded him in the chair but you got Dean was and changed his name because if you're going to be in the Israeli service so many kinds of war government service you're supposed to have taken meanwhile the father was the first Israeli scholar who saw these things but you got to being told the story in this book I forget the name Bennett's message of the scroll or something like that and he's the one who promoted the story of the shepherd boy throwing a rock in a cave after lost sheep and instead of hearing clatter clatter clatter he heard kerplunk kerplunk kerplunk and the sound of broken pottery most every book tells this story so when he climbed in there he saw broken shirts of pottery and some jars actually not broke the jars if you've ever seen them and have their myth on them looked like that and then there would be he rolls of magnets like three or four inch our parchment management but of course the ones he's over broken because the jars been broken they were scattered around on the floor of this came materials this part now there's some evidence that the better ones had found this before this is just a cover story I don't know what's true what is the issue when they were found so this these better ones got in this cave and not talent of scroll studies present this mature oh by the way these things were discovered and the order in which they were discovered so this is 1947 and that's the first cave discovered so they call that k1 and over the next eight years there were about 480 so okay plenty of caves they number the recording if they were magnet repair so they were supposedly 11 manuscript bearing cage over that eight-year period discover the motherlode was capable the fourth magical fairy cave discovery but when man Crimson came for were not as well preserved by the way all this is of the mages leave the nets it's one the second anyway they go into all this stuff pretty carefully so you can get it and usually should get back but I think the best one I know so the first cave is where the first boat were found 47 and they were ultimately there was the big bubble of was K 4 K 4 was not found until 1952 and cave 11 is the last tape back and that was around 1966 well what happened was when these bedouin treasure hunters were others found these they brought them up to Bethlehem which proposed town I'm on the plane to even Scrolls area and can't grow a little so here's the dead seat right and this is where come on would be Jerusalem would be up here sparring there's a why dried-up riverbed that had water so this pathetic boys went up here at Bethlem gave the scroll when they found to a merchant there but it was Rama but I have candid then he was a member of a Syrian Christian group of some kind so he went to Jerusalem we detect to a Syriac priest of some kind in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem for the bankers and that his name was Athanasius and he claims that he had a vision he's written a book about this he claims he had a vision when he was young and he was going to see manager trips and so when this guy came with the manga Crips he claims he knew we and could read them to do what they were whether or not he did or couldn't he wanted to buys them so he made an appointment with these guys to come back the next week with what being said he originally needs to recognize that they were valuable eventually they came back the next week but for some reason the good the gatekeeper or you know doorman outside the building of Monaco wouldn't love to me something mixed up so they were had these matches they didn't know what to do was sort of pedaling on the street so they went over to the Jewish side resistance on the Arab side and they went to the healer University and found this sukenik at Ian's father who immediately took the took something from them to inspect them and and he realized that they were authentic and he I think walks on from meantime Martha Nazis made another appointment with these photos and then he bought some more from they all came from cable one then they were taken to the American School where cross and others were on the spot of this car from Claremont who did the ancient Management Center who took the pictures that everyone knows about traveler but anyone associated with these tacks got to be famous or well positioned outdoors across you know trevor of these people all right kids to call the americans at that time all the countries who were doing business in the ottoman empire and afterwards in the middle east at a school where there was responsible for their their scholars and archaeologists and people who were working in the area so there was a french school of the british school there was a march full of the german school still the french school was the french pierogies and additional defenders of the vatican's and Charmaine's time and in the Crusades as well we came also the vatican ii i think ii was a french vatican duel school called the a cochlea bleak but i was run by friendship rhesus and they had a test they were test when they 19th century by the church to make because a lot of new discoveries are being made it was some extent upsetting the parishioners or the flock and their job was to make the results of modern archaeology comprehensive unpalatable and acceptability by ranking law so they had a theological warrant that they can discuss it pretty well I think they explained how they got started and so that they were not just a a player that had no agenda they have agenda their agenda was to put these things within the realm of church doctrine in an acceptable manner to the modern discoveries that wouldn't upset undermined upset be reckoned fought and that's what they did with the school now whether they did it on purpose or they believe this or whatever not something I think they would believe because of the reasons by foot and they couldn't see these documents as I see them and I may be wrong but I think I'm close to the truth as a Christian but they're not Christian because they're not Christians just like none except they don't have an idea of the Christ but my point is there was no Christ in Palestine at this time in the first century that came through the letters of Paul they that's all that basically is promoting the Christ opportunity I call that the supernatural being one of the original people of Palestine knew anything about a supernatural being called to something ability but in my view see the essence are really what Christians were constant before they got Palmer's so whether there was a figure that they saw on the side which is not the same as the crimes because the Jewish Messiah is not necessarily a supernatural being or never was supposed to be but as Paul Amalgamated this material with a brief history of religion Hellenistic ideas of gods and expectations and Roman religious presentations of the Emperor then the Messiah became a son of God equal to the enemy but as you see in the Palestine you'll see there's no idea of a son of God as such you do have in the scrolls sonship ideology we even have a son of God text but if you see it symbolically it's never a combination with a human woman than like a Greek god the problem is I think the essays were to some extent what Christians were accountable but the Christ ideology that becomes defined by the word Christian is a later it's a later ideology so what are going to call these people is good it's hard to speak about Christians in Palestine because there was no Christianity yet in Palestine therefore there's no Christ at such in school there was a messiah the our Messiah ideology so that's the problem you know milik put his finger on it but he couldn't go further than that where he where he went anyway these people realized the importance of these documents and so sukenik the university brought some and maratha nastiest lost everything Israeli Arab War 48 he left Palestine because things were such an unsettled state and he ended up in a Syria Church in Hoboken New Jersey and he brought him out of trunk with it with the scrolls that he had bought and his church in Hoboken Frank Sinatra's I ran into some economic difficulties so he both these scrolls out under his bed one day and advertising to The Wall Street Journal in the early nineteen fifty scrolls for sale and his running representative in New York happened to be the son of this now the Israel consular representative in New York he saw the thing and he got third parties to buy the rest of these Scrolls from Cape Horn so the Israeli government over 5 or 10-year period got hold of all the scrolls from cave one and they went into this museum of the book and that's what people off the Dead Sea scroll before but these rallies did try to make political capital out they just put them into the museum let everyone see them poppers women trying to make huge academic reputation they just opened my perfect button is seen and people thought that's all the Nazi scrolls were but they didn't know that there were ten other kings so what happened was after the partition of Palestine of the Peace of four to forty eight forty nine the scroll area come up fell over the Jordanian arisen the Palestinian but then the Jordanian government took over the Palestinians then suddenly they learned a palestine state and then the Jordanian set up this commission called the international team so they didn't really care about the scroll they were Hebrew as some people said they gave some evidence that the Jews may have had some right to be there actually and that they didn't really want to get involved in that either so since the church people were very interested in then they gave it all over to bothered above diplomatic and high-level connections position he was in to become the head of the international team and he chose all the this all developed in the 50s early fifties at the proceso de voto became even I was trained as an archaeologist he was trained as the sociologists they generally didn't smoke background he started organizing archaeological expeditions to the Dead Sea in the early fifties I think it three or four seasons out there and he started mapping Harris I took the four years even to get out to where the scrolls were found and so in his mapping he people at that time didn't do the work themselves he had money so he paid been able to do it and you see the pictures of all the French archaeologists briefs are out there the little tent drinking their coffee or tea or whatever and really doing granite allow some paying all these Arab people to go and do all this stuff well somehow the bonus came for in his service that the desire of teams is cave for the servants and it was one of my students who pointed out to me because he did the one of the ones who went out of and on expeditions with me name was Dennis Walker he called my attention to the fact that six months after the boat missed this came for the veterans so called discovered it and cleaned it all out and I don't really believe that he could have they could have missed it or are these the bad ones in town one or two because it's with its within eyeshot where the activations on the Qumran plateau are and then you're go kind of up you can see it so I don't know what the true story of discovery of k4 that's where people have suspicions that things happen that may not have been totally there's k4 here it's on the bottom here and you see you can see the openings in it from this is technical where the runes are here and you just put the cross this this little ravine and there's a form so you can say no one walked down into there while he was doing years of excavations there and that's just almost impossible to imagine of course you never went out from your detent and your tea ceremony maybe you could could that but I got the whole story about the point in six months after he missed it the better ones found telling you know but there's another funny thing since he was controlling everything he paid people they claimed to stop a black market to bring up the material to Jerusalem and that they had found comfort from caves by the square centimeter so that's how they paid the man a set price of what black market they claimed whether that was true or not the point was that the better ones worked in teams and they had to pay off all their people so if they found a big manuscript they just rip them up and give each person and I think that account for some of the and that all may be innocent in fact I probably would but as I press it beginning it's all totally mindless duty well in any case even other did some excavations and he became known for the arguments of the archeology of k2 they found in their surveys there was not much in there but a third cave came three was where this famous thing malevolence to roll pieces of copper called accomplished wall was just sitting on top of the ground this cave 3 they did find that and for a long time they refused to open it that some cleverer Americans gotta read through the indication some had been like we said in that Maccabi books bang down on copper read through the back of it continued what it wasn't it was a travesty conceive the traitors so they cut it open at Manchester that's where they grow work John Allegro he was the heretical on them he had been sent from England before the international team and he described in his book his frustration because the government would not let him mention the copper scroll what was in it in his work that a public all the debts 56 because there the captain posted and that's where all this monopoly stuff got started and then he said some things on English radio and TV major league cover this that upset develop about relations to Christian origins so they tried to get him off the team in the meantime he was trying to undermine man with his relations with the Jordanian monarchy he said he could about all-out with the Jordanian King in 1965 or so if he had been thrown off the team and if the Israelis had to come the Israelis came in 67 the point was they didn't know all this infighting and they didn't want trouble with the Roman Catholic authorities of the balcony either so they they left everything in control of the team that fathered about one in the Jordanian government and put there in the first place and didn't interfere with the setup so the thing remained unpublished for another twenty twenty years all the documents that they had so all of them we're talking about the Unabomber's Dead Sea Scrolls or from cave war and some other things from some of the other caves not very much and as a massive stuff that was unpublished and that's what we broke the monopoly with in 1989 here because I got the biggest wall through unfortunately the Biblical Archaeology society an article Shanghai : the story of that but the point was that from the time they stopped John Allegro from talking about the copper scroll until we broke the monopoly there was a curtain of silence pulled down that's what made me suspicious a friend of mine from Germany who actually did the work for for them on many of the magnets he was the German scholar they abided along not just milling he said after there was a famous book written in The New Yorker magazines by this connecting American intellectual called the first name anyway he'd written about Lenin and Trotsky Finland station and he was a known about a tribe where of the you know left-wing parties back in the 20s and 30s Edmund Wilson and he wrote the CFS the stole he wrote this thing for the author magazine in nineteen father I suggest that the scrolls had a lot to do with Christian origins and that frightened the people with the echo and then the international team so much that according this German scholar who was with them they said let's go slow until the crazies go away that he quoted that to me and basically the Kirkham sign as a ghost little process developed because of the fear of people saying things about Christianity that may or may not have been true in the eyes of the people control these pixels and so this comes this went on for 30 more years and what happened was scholars lived and died and didn't get it all out and pass their magic herbs on to the next person and then you could make an instance are a superstar just by giving them an unpublished magical and then publish it and you know the monopolies just continued and I've heard all about that of the Dead Sea Scrolls on cover have control of the unpublished management's men control of the field Harvard had control of certain artifacts because of the false position mostly biblical things not sectarian texts which are the interesting ones milik and devote kept along sectarian text meaning all the new technology before under their strict control and only gave it out to people they consider trust work that is people have the same view of the scrolls and think so I said in my work that control them publish management for review meaning if a young scholar if you want to study Scrolls in America you have to go to Harvard I know Harvard so I was free of their ideological orientation but that they didn't know that I was a scroll scholar if you wanted a good position as I came to Cal State no we're basically in America they've never place we're just religious studies we're not scroll Department something if you want to use Scrolls company you'd have to go to their program and get them then they would decide if you'd get a job they would recommend you so they're one of their students like was given this text call this mystical text call this home to the Sabbath sacrifice and her name once I created countless and she published this she came in expensive car in the field because they gave repent and she went to Emory University got this very fine job there and that's the way in the field wet then they would control the journals they would control the reviews of all books if you didn't cover their line you were your books would be criticized or he would be called a crazy or other who think that I've been called many times and so on and so forth so this is how they control the field there was like a Curia hiding lot of materialism and academic sector to work so to me to my mind breaking and they really resented our heard bad things about me because I broke the monopoly and that's where the bosses why is room of custody is rally is because of the big cluster of the scrolls were realized suddenly the school for important problem of the scrolls for 20 years left them in the control of these other people then they saw all the world fuss that was made about the scroll because of the agitation that moved that we began and they realized they were just getting in on it they put one of their own editors in charge of it when this individuals program was founded to be a drunkard and ending their life and they removed him from the end of the thing put over there a scar that just at that time you know we know almost all of the scrolls so they were really furious because they wanted to make their academic reputation and they did anyway but they still couldn't to stomach the fact that we have to undercut them as far as they could see it by publishing so all these people on their oxygen laughter so if you've ever seen my name taken away anywhere or anything like that you don't maybe it's legitimate you've seen the kind of working under the sky significant digit I'm talking about last time we were talking about history if you like a Dead Sea scroll studies and the different things that were involved in the original finds and so on there were monopolies going on and I felt that want to do anything to break these monopolies one could also get a freer interpretation of what the scrolls were about and I had gone one day to the Antiquities Authority and I was trying to be friends with the people there so I was telling the guys there who were responsible for appointing since I had to win to get my own permits in a wiring appointing these people have a pro committee when they have this kind of mindset and all I got was a blank look Robbie's tender pure area sluggish and it's hard to communicate anything original from your end that they're going to pay attention to I don't know what you would call that characteristic so anyway when the opportunity came to me be able to get all of the pictures I didn't hesitate to get them and also to make arrangements to get them published but when the committee heard that I had the pictures because some people I wouldn't say betrayed us were ill the publishing company in Holland was Professor Robinson bellman I had both published had agreed to publish them but then they got frightened at a conference because there's a lot of emotion and so they consulted the Israelis and the other scholars who were the establishments dollars and Enza Howe by doing that they showed that we had the pictures so there was such a motion involved that Brill cancelled the publication with Robinson and me publication then proceeded to make a contract with the official committee move court by that time we're ready to make a contract if they knew the pictures were out but they haven't been going to do it before so we were thrown in the hands that's all told in the baited league in schools we were thrown into the hands of Hershel shanks of the archaeology in review who have told you something about we were desperate to get the pictures out at that point the Huntington Library got wind of it and they discovered they know that they had a set of photographs there G as they all knew that we were running to try to get this done they figured they beat us all to it I was their consultant to some extent they came after what I thought that they knew I had this problem with the publication when I heard or what they were going to do my heart sank you know I knew all this trouble that we had had this was an April that you had our publication was supposed to wrap and you know they didn't open their things until September they got all the credit for everything they already knew that we have any case I knew what that all meant that they were going to become superstars and we were going nobody's and they asked me what I thought I said you know you should go ahead and do it I'm not make myself a hero they said well who will we have trouble with you won't have problem with the committee because they don't come out of right they don't make public things they do everything behind the scenes these rallies will make trouble for you and that's exactly what his wrath is threatened like this and they never did let anyone who see their pictures till long after you know these rallies published everything themselves these rallies that organized an exhibit to go across the country of all the pictures all because of what we did they wouldn't have done any nothing you know there were anything Simmons at the Metropolitan Museum of the San Franciscan is in Chicago they took the water on the country they made a catalog and everything all of that was because of them they weren't going to do pain suddenly that's the hidden story of patrol that you're interested and the involvement of Cal State Long Beach if you're interested right being and moment you have this that or something else but I was lucky because of the opportunity presented to me to get a hold of the pictures and because of my problems with the editor of Scrolls I didn't hesitate to do something so I wanted to break the monopoly we did when we this other scholar who's a good friend of mine who I actually respect for personal Philip Davies from Chapman University was everyone was frozen out except the members of the committee for 30 40 years much better scholars than myself never saw him scrolls the scrolls rather he and I went to see the head of the shrine of the book going this same period I'm speaking about it after we spoke to him and we spoke about the publication out of the scrolls he said you won't see the scrolls in your life publication because he's right even everything and he knew that he was other people who gave them photography as we went down the steps of the ministry or the office building that he was housed in the comment I made or we made to each other you won't see the in your lifetime is the hell you say and it wasn't it was less than five years later that we had all the scroll back so little determined effort a little bit of agitation and things you can do a lot of them but you may not get credit you may be presented as a maniac or something like that so there's 11 scroll caves found between 1947 theoretically in 1966 I told you one of people's Dennis Walker who was in when I find there was going to go back to Israel with more expeditions the represented because I was still not going out there because I was still worried about Israeli authorities they wanted to know where I got the picture from they want who who had given me the pictures because they wanted to prosecute these people and I knew they maybe tried to cause trouble maybe they wouldn't I don't know why they were so big - in any event because everyone benefited they benefited the scroll committee benefited all the research gotta address this growth sort of like the Shroud of Turin or The DaVinci Code runtime the scroll or like everybody curiosity was around sorry whatever we've got publications and expose your television programs and all kinds of stuff so don't have anything so that is Walker went back and he was one of the students who would work for me in these classes earlier he first came in their early expedition but he pointed out to me because he did some work on the surveys that father devoted and person I told you who was in charge of everything under the Jordanians was this the head of the Dominican Order and they cope with lead I explained that to you last time and he was in Jerusalem in the east side and he could really go between Jerusalem and East Jerusalem West rumors it was a no-man's land barbed wire and only the UN went back and forth it was the ceasefire so the echo was on the east side and so they were left in control of things and father Devoto was the person who was heavily Accola the Dominican Order and on very high Vatican committee head of the French school the baton lead people whether true not say that he had been in them in the 30s before the war and their equal accion process which was supposed to have been it's not a fascist organization a french right-wing organization but merged on fashion not very powerful things involved in this the vote was a member of the water and everything but I knew this cook pretty well he'd gone out on expeditions he told me all about father BOE's mistress I'm not saying that he said I could trust this guy who told me this with my life very straight is the cook at the Albright Institute the Americans he's since passed away his name pretty good in any event the the situation was that they were on the spot and that was the point I made that control of the one of the management control of the field they brought in who they wanted but they wouldn't let anyone edit the scroll right about the scroll get good reviews publish anything we had of journals who didn't agree with their theory and their theory was that these were a scenes but these were peaceful lessons and you can't read these documents and think that these people are afar peaceful so someone else develop a theory in the early days of medical research of the fifties and sixties called the gsella theory saying that these were really thoughts and in a way they were right in terms of what the mature look like but they were they were founded they were founded I had footnotes about them in that because the first written to scholars and he wrote a lots and the scrolls and so if you didn't you know if we could break the monopoly and power some of the scroll to get a different view then it could break open the discussion and came forward to where most of the unpublished Mattel's came from and actually came one has perhaps some of the most important roles because it came one the potatoes are in a Bergman state of preservation you know they were in scroll jars mostly and when they weren't the scroll John had been broken probably more recently so we still use the principal documents from one today in our and what I'm doing here I don't do much of the fragments of the community rule that was in the anyone who wore scroll or was under lighting Institute commentary that was in cable the hymns or songs or doing a call that wasn't able to Isaiah scroll over cable and some other assorted the only thing that wasn't there that we as very important to Damascus stuff the Damascus document was not in cave one fragments of it for for but it had been found previously in Cairo in a Jewish synagogue in tyre which is placed up depository of old texts synagogues back in the Middle Ages and before how to repository where they threw all things particular to have the name of God on them because they felt you have to bury those things you couldn't destroy the name of God call it but so they always had a good knees a depository for all to prayer book well this committees a turn was found by when the British took over Cairo in 1880s and 90s after the Suez Canal affair with a British up a hold of the whole area after the French sold the Suez Canal of eighteen sixties and seventies this discovery was made in this jewish synagogue that had been actually apparently previous enough it still was but terrorize terrorize our group of Jews not very many left who are against Orthodox Jew tease they considered sectarian Jews but they mainly don't like the rabbinic approach to things and though they now have their own rabbis but they don't like the rabbinic they don't approve of the rabbinic literature the town hood and all that much of us a little bit like Islam as conflicts like this in its longer from legal school school for don't accept the hadith of the Prophet stuff like that hadith are sayings about the problem these carrots they're all documents of theirs that do bark that scrolls were found in 800 that strange documents came into the Jerusalem area in the 800s and Christian another Christian prelate of some kind I forget his name it's in all the books wrote a letter to someone talking about the sudden strange appearance of documents from caves and Jerome the Christian scholar mentioned such things to go to the back before so in this kinesia were two versions of the Damascus not a fella found the document in fire was named Solomon Schechter who the reader and rabbinic Cambridge University and he then came to America this is 1897 norsu I think was found in 1896 and he became the founder of one in America's called conservative duties in the heavens over once discovered the guineas amazing so famous that he could leave Cambridge had come to America and become the founder or the head of Conservative Judaism that didn't even exist before and he was became the head of that just on the basis of these lines particularly in Damascus everyone do at the time it was very important and lo and behold and never been seen before but in the Dead Sea Scrolls fragments turned up now that's what upset me and a lot of us professor babies grow up the letters originally that we tried to break the monopoly like that before I got the pictures because someone else had shown me the computer list of what existed in the Israel Museum that had previously been the Rockefeller Museum in Jordan one of the United the area in 67 turn it over and they had all the records and someone showed me the computer printout of all the fractions that people like me weren't supposed to see and I saw how many fragments of the Damascus document they actually had but weren't published this was in 1980 [Music] 6:7 when I was there that's alright so a lot of them came of that just from incidental encounters with people and you know I knew what there was and so I knew I could ask for certain things so I asked I wrote these Riley Department of Antiquities been asked to see the unpublished fragments of the Damascus dock and I put there because the lawyer Miss Rose said you know if you are unjustly denied something by the government ministries you can go to the High Court of Justice in Israel and make a case that you get unduly denied but the Lord said you need a paper trail of refusals we asked to see the unpublished fragments of the Damascus document we have the actual photograph numbers I've written them down from this computer printout I knew exactly numbers work why did we want to see them because we wanted to see if the Cairo virgins agreed with the Dead Sea Scrolls Bertie that was really important to know how accurate the Cairo version is a myth is a medieval copy of some gum penis they had parallels in his profile they weren't comfortable because they hadn't given them out to scholars and they were thought of you know they were going as slow as they could that was a legitimate concern they weren't interested to know it's very interesting to know is the Cairo document accurate as it turns out it's very accurate and there's more than 10 acts in fact there are other material as I showed you those materials that were the last columns of something there the last columns of the Damascus document so there was additional material that wasn't in the cargo versions that were found in the guineas so that was really important of course they turned into death and that's where we start campaign to free the scroll but nevermind - the point was that the Masters document the framework and it wasn't found in k1 so these things got to Cairo this is a repository in Cairo from eleven twelve hundred pair but scrolls first appeared in The Jerusalem scene we know from contemporary testimony in seven eight hundred and Cara ISM this formed of Judaism actually refers to things in the scroll they saw scroll documents and that's what we enforce their antagonism to rabbinic Pharisee Judaism scrolls and then it's quite clear from their literature that they had seen material if some interesting well not a lot of posting was on the subject there's some interesting books on this subject about the cars and that's my son's powers in America when the scrolls were found didn't couldn't believe they were ancient documents they thought they were characters and for a long time they wouldn't be convinced until car contesting witches reliable - I don't think anyway but it's good enough to get a rough general day and so the people who bought these McAra documents found a reason for thinking that because the Karaites have been talking about similar things care i'd talk about the sons lose that dog which is a very big part of the damascus times The Ambassadors document first because the Damascus documents were the most report in mind that several wartime community rule the Masters doctrine the habit become trend which is why translated all those three in the Dead Sea Scrolls of the first Christians to give you a translation which is really I think actions not fake and I gave you the Hebrew so that if you don't think I'm accurate you can check and go look at the dictionary and see if I vacuumed there's people who translate things but then I'll give you the Hebrew so you can't count there they're cutting corners or playing a little bit of a preconceived spin game with you I give you something works works righteousness is an extremely important idea in the early Christian think beautifully this Undertaker was James Paul and supposed to be the person who talked about salvation by faith he's not interested in so much it works he's interested in grace I learned all this from studying the scroll but the letter of James which people mark Ruth the function even be in the New Testament got very angry that was there so this is not a Christian book it is it's a Jewish books but it's like the Dead Sea Scrolls and there it says attacks the grace knowledge of doctrine and the faith doctor and says though you foolish man don't you know that Abraham was also justified by works or made righteous by works so it's the righteousness of the works and he said that's how we were saying faith and works working together okay I'm talking Christian theology so much here but you know that's conceived of and I think it is an attack on the Pauline position of faith if you're only saved by faith then you can have people and get deathbed conversions like Constantine well not in Palestine that wouldn't go overseas Christianity X but not hostile no works and works were generally considered to be of the tour of the law of the Mosaic law which is why Paul is so intent on attacking the most active law in Galatians because it's so important in the pole vault james dispute even in christian as we know you know the faith person works ardently for Jenny the only thing missing that works just as any good works not that's what works up the tour ok this cross over and over and over again use the term works but very crafty translators who don't want you to see the connections with early Christianity then translate it as deals or acts that's who you met they're not even consistent in their translation and you don't catch the the charm meaning of the word works that's what I mean about how for instance instead of saying Holy Spirit suppose the person who translated spirit of holiness may find you don't it doesn't hit you Justin hit you that it's always better this is not holy prayer this was pretty I thought the same thing oh yes it is this is the game these are the tricks this is why I this grover misinterpreted by the general public and have been for a long time why was necessary for me anyway to give a translation that I thought the factory and also to give the Hebrew so you could check and see if it wasn't all these things are done all the time even in the Bible singulars are made into florals even in the translation of the letter of James I think it says that when they kills the right just one you offer them no resistance and you see the translation ship and they killed the righteous ones they offered no resistance they take it from singular to plural because they don't want you to know that they're talking about Jesus being called the righteous one and that isn't the Jews that killed them according the letter of James it's the rich the energy to soften have an agenda the scroll photo I told you box over the firm ashes translation sometimes he'll put the Messiah's plural when it's clearly the burbs and everything our senior because he doesn't want that there's a singular conception of the Messiah feels obliged to make you feel that this is different from Christianity so you know and I show the words like it says in the Messiah of Aaron and interest at one point stood up and that can also mean to be resurrected so they said the Messiah's plural he has but the verb is singular so you see these people who are loved to allow you to think like that just shift the translation so much so you don't think something so I always give you comments about those things in my translation I put a little parenthesis a nice plane you know why such such and such is being done and I think that's important do you say why depress that all the trolls I can already get my books written you know I did the most important ones I'd like to do a few more I like to do the war scroll so it's not necessary to do the translations are not quite adequate Jews Thanksgiving but there are not a lot of other complete documents that have to be done the other fragments are are ok so but we're doing this class then is is most of the stuff that was found in cake 1 and then the fragments of the Damascus documents are found in cave 4 but since we now know that the fragments match to the Cairo version we can use the Cairo bird I wanted to say that what else was found in this growth what I'm talking about at the moment are sectarian document documents peculiar to this group or we also call with extra biblical documents are the most interesting things that were found and of course aside from cave one the lion's share was found in cave food missed by the devote survey people and therefore ended up and complete fragments whether it was was fragmentary is that in the beginning I cancel it certainty ended up that way probably it was pretty practically but maybe not as much was that just an innocent mistake I guess made to leave would think doctor probably applause the copper scroll was found in cave three which is the official interpretation of it that Allegro claims he was not able to publish his betrayal he wrote his Dead Sea Scrolls in 1956 because the bow and Milly and these other people refused to let him speak about it till the till till Minich tubos assistant had published it and so he was totally frustrated by this and their interpretation of the conference called oh it was dropped by a passerby it wasn't part of the scrolls with because whatever the scrolls be addressed in a treasure map because the scrolls are otherworldly like us there this is a monastery that's what I used to like Frank cross at Harvard wrote a book the ancient monastery from Cupra what maybe a proto monastery in a sense that it probably started the monastic movement in Christianity as we know it movements of this time but you know it wasn't kind of month was more like the Templars crusading order if they were learning more yeah but they were as aggressive in their mind isn't as long as a lot of these those of the scrolls unfortunately although I think the scrolls were more interested in righteousness that is gone as long as the next scroll regression with Pauline faith those actually call this long the faith of a prett they can speak an appalling manner in this you know they speak about oh forget how they speak about the faith but they talk about probate they don't speak about the work so much though they they are interested in something they're pauline and their theology but they're dead sea scrolls and their ethos so it's very oddly finally let's go back so sectarian non biblical things are really interesting and turned out that door some four hundred some odd words never seen before a lot of works never see it's a southern multiple companies many of them and when all was said and the rest were biblical management's in multiple copies many multiple copies they were interested in the bible but the bubble hadn't put it in final form yet because there was no book it sucks I'm just different strong they're just running helter-skelter so it wasn't in the form that we know it no I think they understood what the tour was already that the first five books of Moses as we call them the Torah they speak about and I think they're familiar and the prophets some of the prophets that are already recognized that being pretty holy but the other books well that's our books probably animals coming to the final you know what was canonical and what was so it turns out every book of the Bible was there except Esther I tell you in the Maccabees act like Christians book why they Esther wasn't there the reason is that I think Esther had the wrong ethos didn't agree with the ethos of the scroll this group is uncompromising it would never agree that a Jewish woman should marry a foreign King and do all that flirting and whatever it takes to make him change his mind in a sexual way that wouldn't be able and therefore poor of the rabbinic Jews summer it would not be accessible when they were so everybody's found a lot of books that we know from other sources like Enoch Testament of the 12 patriarchs books that are not in our Bible but anyway a lot of books that we are know about which we now call a pocket were found every pastor many a multiple top and that's basically what's that there are no New Testament writings and I don't think there would be and even though someone had a few read fragments there which could have been left by Monica monk who was doing some work in one of the caves later on even those I don't think they are anything to do with the New Testament no one knows what was refract which are that are there and one of the which came they were found in 2007 because ethos is so different in the Gospel of Mark and so under the ethos is like 180 degrees opposite oh I just have to do is read the scroll to realize that same as Esther you wouldn't have not a cusp of mark there how do you know you well you'll see when we're done in them because that's grown within that's I think what's wrong with another thing that these are just uh an eclectic means no real order or anything Norman gold but are at Chicago one of the people frozen out of this canister and I was in that toughening history show that summer to which I was on a while ahead globe on there because global series are really very very boring and childish and not very deep been superficial this is a collection of manuscripts from the Jerusalem area that we're putting the scrolls has a kind of guineas is what is I need is just to help their scalper makes well that's totally oh that's that's completely unsupportable because anyone who reads the scrolls knows that the same characters are mentioned from scroll the scroll of the Roman scroll the same ideas that maybe different authors but the same ideas the ideas of the sectarian tax are totally homogeneous you'll never find a compromising one you'll never find one that applies the Messianic the best Bayesian he'll never find any document of that kind you know they're all totally uncompromising all works oriented and very aggressive extremely militant and so they're not just an eclectic collection they're the literature of all over the Damascus doctor you might pick up some of these other things as we go along but I think we should get into the documents themselves if we can so I'm going to use my own translation you can use our mash if you want it's page from s what page 125 one is 355 and now here all universe of righteousness complete formation has all you have an older version of Ramesh year so easier to handle I'll just pick this up and I'll compare occasionally what he has to what I sometimes interesting he says o you who know right not the same thing but in fact you see it does one of them that literally say knowers of righteous no righteousness is fair enough but here all knowers of right so right away though this is not the beginning in fact we found out earlier from from we now know from him he's got some of the other versions who came for that he showed you they're breaking the monopoly they have always available didn't have previously this is the car of in either person that I have here we now know that there are some the two preceding this as an introduction well I don't think significant but I think at one point it does refer to seal in the material front of proceeding here will be right away now that righteousness is an important doctrine that is look at the Hebrew I give you the Hebrew it says Tosh I'm gonna call you days etic cold it means all your day means no works of setting his righteousness so it actually uses the word ascetic there so you know oh we should use the same word that word should be totally consistent in translation and many times in these translations it is not Garcia Martinez in the Brill paperback is not consistent because his translation goes through Spanish into English and I don't even know the Spanish was probably consistent or accurate so we can't possibly because the other translation that's available on the market is wipes with some other associates and that's not very good either I don't think to be precise here I'm talking only is the same coordinate and there it is right away and comprehend the works of God because he has a dispute with all flesh and it literally says will do but the reason I put the do in there is because I want to emphasize the work doing because that's there that's in the text and the word and Hebrew for works is based on the work verb in Hebrew - so doing is important and if you you have to do the Torah and he will do judgment what do you have their information yeah literally says both sangwich pop to judgment that's why I didn't put condemned because if they're up there is a place working damaged Jews but it's it's not here I'm due judgment may be condemned but do judgment is more than that it implies the last judge concept it is the last judgment in this problem that's why you say the translation are not important they're very very important yeah you need to look at that what page that's per mesh I think he is regardless of my criticism I think he is the most precise of all the translators when it comes down to it compared to the other tools I mean he's closer than any of the other ones that you might encounter well as I said there are a few things that are our problem and all those who win so and this is addressed to the knowers of writers who worry about the works of God and it is against the ones who insult or blaspheme God and they rebelled when they forsook him and therefore God hid his face from them already we're beginning to see this is a very Pro Torah book because it isn't just going to be rebelling on anything it's going to be backsliding from the law opposite of Paul and almost every sense no allegorical exegesis that has no symbolic interpretation of the passages and here's a very important concept he hid his face from Israel and from his temple does the book care about the temple yes and delivered them up to the sword I put it in italics but I think it's an important concept I want to kind of take our attention to to judgment I think it's important to bring up to the sword I think particularly because of the New Testament uses the word delivering up quite frequently but actually you know Beezus relates to judas iscariot they didn't if you look at the Greek in the New Testament it doesn't literally say who betrayed him it says who delivered him up the reason I'm interested in to show the powerhouse in the Christian New Testament documents with the Dead Sea Scrolls the usages even though they're being used differently in a different context I do believe and that's my my theory and not theory that's not mine when I come to observe and feel that authors some of the authors of all verses documents in the New Testament know concepts in the Dead Sea Scrolls which they are revising reframing recasting deliberately perhaps changing if you want to be unsympathetic so that probably going to watch where it says delivered to money usually is delivered them up to the sword but because of his memory of the Covenant of the first it says rich I mean the first what is for men that's right first are the forefathers the reason I put the first in there literally says the first because of the New Testament and the first shall be last and the last shall be first to show that these concepts are here would have a different connotation that may not come through so yes this literally does mean the four corners but doesn't say forefathers it doesn't say you know often people who are vault it doesn't say father father's since the first so you know when I'm a trance or later even though maybe you want to make beautiful translation I might put a parenthesis or a foot not you know literally this is the first where I might put the first and I might say this means for for the ancestor but also it's important for the first why because of the first covenant as opposed to the new code he left a remnant now this can be you know kind of grace here you know Paul and Christianity as we know through full view of Christian I don't know what Jesus talked grace I never saw like mentioned the words in any speech and I'm not but we know what Paul taught us we have his letters and he speaks about grace and so this is kind of grace and we'll see a through here quite often it's not for your sake that he's doing this it's not because you've necessarily even done it works it's not because of your righteousness even perhaps Oh God would be good if you were righteous it's because of his memory of the first it's a kind of grace towards the first that he's gonna say he's gonna save in spite of the way so though it doesn't act I don't think there is a word for grace and he produces but even though there is no word for grace as such it is a kind of grace concept and we'll see it later in this document too but it's always connected to the affection for the first he's going to save you out of love for the first mrs. Abraham Isaac Jacob you know Moses so on and so for father's if you like what does he do he left a remnant that's a concept from Ezekiel if you know the prophet Ezekiel which he says a remnant will read survived you know this is at the time of construction and I did review the whole history of the Israelite Jewish people we name the past with the approach a miracle at the time the destruction of the first temple which was around the top of the Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar 590 585 and it's going to be mentioned here Nebuchadnezzar you see so zq was writing around that time and he says you know cut my hair part of my hair I've burned pocket of some what we burn something with this and but Brendan she'll survive anyway these people are aware of documents like that and they honor them and did not deliver them up again repeated as second or even a third time we will see the word will be is around six or seven times but why italicize to be destroyed so we know the delivering up to the sword destroyed you see Judas character delivered up Jesus according to the New Testament presentation for him to be destroyed that's the occasion the we call that betray that's not what the Greeks and in the era of wrath well there are prizes first mentioned if you recall and we did read that book last in Daniel Daniel but the wrath is in death that's there now here's a problem at all scroll stuffers 390 years after he delivered them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of King of Babel that's a historical preservation he's named out my documents are would the name as I think I've said in my work people in the past who are not a problem for them they're only starting a mysterious code these are being present a people that they could get into some difficulty talking about where I do in this class or something anyway he visited them 390 years is important because of you who feel that this is accurate dating and that's where I think through a lot of people off then we know when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed 585 or 586 BC so 300 and 90 years after that you get down to about two hundred two hundred eighty or ninety BC so then of course the simple-minded people the people take this in its overt sense I mean this you know that's one we're talking about but they don't realize these people did not have an accurate knowledge of chronology they really didn't know exactly how many years there were between Nebuchadnezzar and the present so this is either be taken as accurate order it's just an attempt to estimate within the within the natural framework of four hundred nineteen seventy seven times seventy or something like that or I think if your friend Ezekiel they're actually referring to the zekiel says in the same time about his prophecy in that he that hears about the destruction of the temple and then he says that his tongue clung to the roof of his mouth and he couldn't speak after he got the word of the destruction of the temple he was among the refugees he said that the river at a bar erupted and he says his tongue stuck to the roof of his mouth for 390 didn't literally stick he couldn't prophesy for 390 days and then the word of God came to him and he was able to speak again you know as a visionary a prophetic old person I think that's what this time you get reversed 300 because it's already mentioned the tortilla you know a little too easy there's a 390 not days but the number 390 I think is taken the period of time that prophecy was dead in Israel I don't think that they know exactly anyway the number was useful but this is a very important argument in density well studies what is the trend of 90 years me and are they accurate and their clean air chronology I only pointed to see verses priest list at the end of the antiquities he was totally off his chronology is totally off and he's someone who was very smart and visit this time and the town look the chronology is totally off so that these people should have an accurate chronology and everyone else should not to my mind is his documents they got the three at ninety years with some other symbolic copy but that's something to consider he visited that he visited them a visitation and he caused a root of planting to grow from Israel and parent now that or is a singular root and then we have allusion to Israel and Aaron and that's a Messianic illusion because planting imagery is very important in the messianic imagery in the various songs and of course the root is really a word that is used to refer to the Messiah actually let me see if I can find actual Hebrew here of the root here about what line is that what seven he visited them and you schmuck yet sum up the sum up to meet the the the branch of David is a very famous hadith in the scrolls to messianic idea and here this is the verb based on as Emma the falling to grow but in fact it's making a branch rub from Israel and Aaron and a root and so on a planta to inherit the earth there may be a reference there 162 got visiting man the point is that this is like the New Testament presentation of Jesus in in a way the Christian presentation is that God visits Mary through the Holy Spirit or whatever and a child is conceived now the one I have a breath that the usage is singular even though it's a double reference to Israel and from air the birds are all singular everything is singular because a route to find a grow from an to inherited land and to all that is present none of those usages are a plural now I'm not saying that's parallel for the New Testament totally but there is that kind of now this made me all community about Vanessa sorry I'm given individual later on it will be individual Messiah and this may be a community based on two increasingly and literal life so to engender something using messianic gimmicks regarding religion plant if you there is some stuff is known in the Matthew Matthew when they're talking about blind guides every plant that my father has not planted shall be uprooted using the planting the routing and other vocabulary that one has here but this little problem kind of Heavenly Father planting a plan and a route of planning and that is to operating on the same for camera instruction whatever you want to say and one is against the other because it's all talking about the blind guy the Pharisee they will fall into the pit and then it also that's also talking about cleaning not having to clean your hands before you eat that's what that passage is and that you shouldn't listen to the Pharisees who want you to wash your hands before you eat and that he said these things of the proud of making mark and what doesn't have to think about plant being uprooted but in mark it says if lettering all foods clean whereas here we do have restrictions on the dietary regulations to a hair of the land the proper on the good things of his earth and they understood their sinfulness and knew that they were sinners or guilty men well that's one way of putting it in Hebrew I know another way of putting it and they confess their sins or if you prefer the New Testament language and John Tork remission of sins in the wilderness pregnant how you translate this and they understood their sinfulness and they knew that they were sinner or they knew they were guilty men a very precise language but any case there's an idea atonement for sin here so we're not going to get a messy these are things that were not appreciated about how incredible this document okay and they were like blind men over there's the blind man I didn't ever saw that before and they were like blind men who fell into a pit and the blind leading the blind I think every time I do the scrolls I learn something new I didn't even see that I saw the pit I saw the falling in the pit but I never saw they were like blind and groping for the way the way Acts tells us was a name for early Christianity announcement acts tells us at one point I stopped us at one point that few days do a lot about the way and it means by the way Christianity Palestine uses it about three different contacts but even more than that John came in the way in the wilderness anyway in the Hebrew here and in the passage about the way the wilderness it's the same word territory and weighing the weight terminologies were strong in all the documents of the truth now you see we're getting parallel at the problem at the power of the New Testament even though the the connotation and meaning is different and we just did one page and what people couldn't see I think originally is that the camera was so elegant in the ideas are different that they couldn't see the relationship and but there's nothing in the second century BC that looks anything like this that we that's where we read the micrometers that's why we're at all that mature because we want to know what things that you're busy looking and the first time we hear stuff like this is in the New Testament all those different I admit but now we're seeing more mobile category and we'll see we'll see so much for Kepler that's the same middle because you know but it's different connotation because it works righteousness against quality and faith anyway they grow for the way for twenty years so that's a precise thing they were lost for twenty years they didn't have a leader so something happened maybe the Messiah was killed something happened in between God visiting them and then 20 years this is all very esoteric but something is going on here and God listen to that consider their works because they saw him with a whole heart God considered their works keeping that consistent translation of works and heart let's see and God observed their deeds says permit what you can't change because of God considered that know you who know righteousness and consider the works of God you can't suddenly change it to be because it's the same word oh this I mean it's my scene that's the greatest honor we're doing so we do it your deeds no but works is the theological thing weird for me with and if you don't use it works then you're not being square with the public who knows about work for sex workers and God considered their works because they saw him for their whole on it because their works were righteous you see and they have also confessed their sins remission of sins they raised up for them a teacher of righteousness we have heard that at the beginning this is addressed to the loop the knowers of rights to those people care about righteousness to guide them the blind guides again in the New Testament to guide them in the way of his heart and that's why they don't be consistent in the habit of commentary this and all of them we're going to hear that the right picture nodes in the way of God's heart and God put the knowledge into his heart the people the teacher of righteousness or the righteous teacher or whichever you prefer it's more a unsetting mores teachers etiquette righteous to guide them in the way of his heart and he made known here's where we want to refers to the last generations what he would do in the last generation so weren't the last time so form to the New Testament just reading that is it's hard to put this in the second century BC was aware the consensus scholars have wanted to put it on the basis of geography topping out I say depend artery emphasize science at best and its internal data where there's a question that has to take precedence over an external data such as so-called pedagogical any graphical sequence I curse eyeball that in the maccabees a guidebook and he made no to the last generation what he would do in the last to get generous to the congregation now that is it can be attacked literally means assembly and of course assembly in Christianity means Church the assembly or church or congregation of traitors now this is traitors and what are the traitors do their work just people of a different party they turned aside from the way they were turner's aside from the way now we know that of the way is by half the way in the wilderness we're going to find out it's the way of perfection what are you having the momentum who departed from the way yeah but it actually ain't Hebrew again is literally a noun Turner's decided to park from these it's not a verb it was a noun the people who turn aside their Turner's decide hey I'm just trying to be precise either one was good but the literally would turn or cycle this is the time it is written like a straying effort in Israel that's correct and it's a quote from Jose another part now another individuals fund the introduce a man of scoffing it's usually called the scholar the ideological adversary whose idea there are judgments a joke but it literally says manners copper it's two words each how that song anyway he wrote and he's an opponent right and he's an ideological opponent it's not a political opponent because what he does is an ideologically he's part of it the the congregation of traitors traitors to the way in the wilderness they were briefly part of the way of words but they turned aside and deserted the way well what did he do he pours over Israel of wars of wine later on we're going to get a guy called the spouter of wine but you have to understand the word spouter-inn Hebrew is the same root as the word pouring out his in the verb hebrews built up on three-letter roots one is buckteeth hot Kasab and this is hit to hit chief is the verb my teeth is banana so really it's not rated as powder is to pour out of wine he's called him mighty up because I was lying the poor out of line housework so this is the same person this scoffer is the same person as it says we're a coal in this roles and that's the consistency of these documents the liar the man of lying the poor out of line the spout and so what pin that there's also many of the herbs could even imply that this mobile any case he's poured out lying wars over Israel and he's the ideological adversary of the righteous teacher what does he do he brings lo the everlasting titles he abolished the pathways of righteousness he removed the boundary markers and he was back again which the first the forefathers had marked out for their inheritance and it's for this reason that God or he called down upon them the curses of his covenant them up to the avenging sword of vengeance of the covenant the boundary markers of the first laid out are the law that's what the Mosaic law and what he did was remove the boundary marketers above the Mosaic law which tells you what righteousness is and it's for this reason that God became angry because this is what the first the ancestors the first generations had marked out by their inheritance and therefore he delivered us up at this time to the sword the avenging sword recovered he goes well that's my theory but that doesn't mean that I'm right I'm trying to explain these appalling it's a pall like person whether it's poor not depend on the chronology that would make change the righteous teachers Paul would win ahead of all the yeah but he these people are there and you know James is the subdeacon early Christianity the righteous fact they use it in place of his own name since you're asking I'm not saying that is all but I mean the matter is it's a Paul like teacher in a sense that he teaches straying from the law deserted the New Covenant he went astray let others astray and what he did is he he led them astray in a trackless waste where's that caused them to wander astray on 15 in a trackless waste with no way no no way no no Derek no way in the wilderness no Jonathan it's like way we're gonna get the way in the community rule with baptism and everything else we're also going to get the way in the wilderness twice spoken up in the community pool well you can't have things like that way in the wilderness twice mentioned in the community rule with the same ideology as here and then tell me we're in the second century BC this is what I mean on ideological grounds you're a first century environment because we didn't anything like this in the Maccabee books and Josephus or anything else no no place to see this kind of maturity in the New Testament from the perspective of removing I'm just saying this is the native Palestinian so people say oh wise men said these are Christian documents no I'm not saying that at all because Christianity is what Paul preached and what was accepted because Paul is the first person I think who spoke about Christ in written form and Luke enact tells the Christians were first of all Christians at Antioch in Syria in appalling in community but I say it's proto it's what Christianity was in Palestine before it went overseas it before it got fallen others before they saw it smooth things and chose illusions the seekers have to smooth of things is another common expression goes across all the dollars which is why I say these are consistent documents this is not just any old collection this is a collection of doctors and the smooth things in Hebrew is hot cooked and if you know these Semitic languages they like to play on words so hot car actually plays on another Hebrew that rabbinic Judaism were interested in hahaha this is legal traditions that you find in the town and that's what Pharisee is did saw talked the name for the mall on a template and the Mosaic law together is the hot so most of us think this is a version against the Pharisees and the challah fault that they sought but Paul calls himself the pharmacy of the Pharisees he says he learned at the feet of that so he's not to be separated from the croissants appears the first things are definitely being criticized I think what's wrong with the Pharisees they see smooth things and chose illusions and watch out for breaks or loopholes up it's question from Isaiah 30 and they chose the fair neck and I'd say that that means they chose the easy way cuz they chose the fairest of the they they chose the easy way they didn't did the hard way you know they didn't follow purity regulations and so on and so forth they justified the wicked and condemned the righteous now that's where you really should use the word content because it really is the opposite of justifying and later on in column 4 we're going to hear that the sons of sad dog they do it right they justify the righteous and and they transgress the bro covenant broke the law because they banded together against the soul of the righteous one and against all the walkers in perfection that's what this group calls itself here and in other documents and they pursued them with the sewer and attempted to divide the people on the wrath of God and it goes on like that this is a history of a certain period these people who call themselves lots of things some of those things is Walker is perfection or perfection of the way they are the perfect ones I can pick this up

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