SciShow QuizShow Bad Blood and Weird Bugs

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SciShow

Keywords:

SciShow,science,Hank,Green,education,learn,Alyssa Lerner,Quiz Show,Michael Aranda,medicine,artificial blood,cholera,white blood cells,bacterial infection,milk,orgone,cancer,libido,space-time,Van Allen belts,magnetic field,Explorer 1,VLF,very low frequency communications,time crystal,ytterbium,nitrogen-vacancy centers,diamond,animal bodies,narwhal,tusk,hemolymph,pycnogonid,Sea spider,peristalsis,stridulation,abdomen,water boatman,paramere,runaway selection

Subtitles:
[Music] welcome to scishow quiz show we're real smart people Duke it out in a scientific battle of wits I'm Michael Aranda your host and our contestants today are Hank green local Montanan who's playing extreme weather bingo with the rest of us with an earthquake and lots of wildfires so far yeah that wasn't gonna really long intro do you want to do it again does he seem to confuse the whole time they just kept going it's fine we'll just roll with it yeah I mean I get that free space in the middle and I'm just just crossing my fingers for some serious kale mmm what about the Yellowstone explosion we're not putting that on the list buddy that's uh that's game over yeah you know you don't get to collect your $15 okay fair so Hank is competing against sideshows entire New York satellite office who's visiting just in time for our smoke our senior editor ELISA learn hi nobody clapped know what he said it just silence from behind the cameras that made me less uncomfortable as a special thank you to our supporters on patreon we've selected two of you at random to win some awesome prizes heck you're playing for John Carruthers Oh John and ELISA you're playing for Lucy McGrath hi Lucy Stefan show our players and the audience what they can win John and Lucy welcome to the show both of you are gonna be taking home some special prizes today we've got the autographed cards from our final round which will have the contestants beautifully written final guesses and wagers on them but the person who ends the show with the least amount of points today today's loser will take home the fabulous and rare I lost scishow quiz show pin good luck to the contestants let's play ball okay you both start off with a thousand scishow bucks each time you answer a question correctly you'll win some if you get it wrong you lose some ready yes okay our first round is about medicine specifically some of the old bad medicine did you write this one no of course not Sarah this way all right sure so when doctors were first tinkering around with blood transfusions they tried out some non blood substitutes in 1854 some doctors were trying to treat cholera and use a liquid that they thought our bodies could change into white blood cells they hoped it would boost blood volume and the immune system so people could fight off the bacterial infection unfortunately this artificial blood didn't actually do this or really help in any way at all what was the substance coconut water milk it was hoping that wouldn't be one of the choices you got milk I I went way worse I was like oh you know the pus from cow boils oh we still have two more choices semen oh no I mean that makes it certain medicines or egg whites oh you're going peg whites unfortunately that is incorrect red color I'm gonna go with semen that is also incorrect thank God milk okay I thought that would be like a red herring cuz it's white not so semen yeah tearing a white herring people did not understand what cells were but they didn't they they thought it would convert into white blood cells so they must have known something about cells right they like a look in there like oh there's little droplets in here just like the lipid drop which would just become white blood milk milk it does come out of an animal yes there's a lot of it around how did that go the answer is B milk during the cholera epidemic in 1854 two doctors in Toronto milked a cow through goz into a warm bowl then they injected 355 milliliters of this milk into the blood stream of a sick 40 year old man they thought the fatty globules in the milk could be converted into white blood cells which would eventually become red blood cells this was probably because of another scientists experiments with milk and animal blood because two patients were covered after their milk transfusions these doctors thought it was a good blood replacement even though five others died and then in 1873 the treatment was used again by a doctor in New York City he performed goat-milk transfusions on tuberculosis patients and dogs with not so great results but assumed any deaths were from too much milk not the milk itself over the next few years a couple more actors in North America and England bought into the dairy hype and experimented with cow goat and even human milk transfusions but eventually skepticism and reports of bad side effects were enough to force this bad blood substitute to drop out of fashion the psychoanalyst Vilhelm Reich had a controversial career in the early 1900s and many of his ideas are considered to be pseudoscience nowadays take the concept of organ a physical energy that supposedly permeates the universe he argued that organ contributes to things like the skies blue color or the blue of a certain frog during mating season along with galaxy formation chlorophyll weather and human emotions right even created big boxes for people to sit in called orgone accumulators which he claimed would harness the energy and treatment asses like cancer and how much money did he charge people to sit in the boxes the idea of organ was built off another idea though what was it Freud's idea of libido as sexual energy Mesmer's idea of animal magnetism Bergson's idea of Elan VTOL which he used to explain growth and evolution or Jung's idea of the collective unconscious I was gonna I was gonna say Jung before I even heard all that so I'm gonna go with Jung's idea of the collective unconscious I'm like right so I just trying to get to zero this round this time I just feel like it's like golf lower scores are better mm-hmm your long v10 unfortunately that is also in Korea right good good job that saves me from you know not being tied with you that we continue to be tied to just lower down than we once were I need to stop guessing based on what I think Sarah would have made the choices the answer is a libido Vilhelm Reich was a former student of Freud and took his theory of the libido a step beyond sexy stuff with orgone energy which he said flows through the universe like some kind of cosmic life force the term came from words like orgasm and organism and he believed that when you didn't have enough of this energy or bottled it up you got sick so to fix that he created orgone accumulator boxes that supposedly concentrated the energy and could heal people these ideas were mostly based on speculation misconceptions and sometimes quest noble experiments not rigorous empirical evidence so now they're considered pseudoscience point blank just sitting in a big box isn't going to cure cancer under round 2 which we're gonna call hopefully will go better than round 1 space time the Van Allen belts are two clouds of high-energy particles surrounding the earth held in place by its magnetic field we've known about them since the launch of the Explorer 1 satellite in 1958 and have learned a lot since then like how they can change size because of what the Sun spewing out at any given moment but this year researchers found that the inner boundary of the Van Allen belts is definitely farther away from the earth than it was in the 1960s hmm and they think it's because of something we're doing is it cluttering low-earth orbit with more satellites and space debris releasing dust clouds in the upper atmosphere for research heating up the ionosphere with high-frequency radio waves to study it or producing more very low frequency radio communications okay you go first okay the first one in crash man we can't but I guess I have to go - I'm gonna say D more very low frequency defend yourself the answer is D very low frequency communications a lot of us will never use very low frequency or VLF radio waves which range between 3 and 30 kilohertz they can't transmit audio like voices but scientists in the military used them for things like broadcasting coded messages or time signals across long distances to submarines deep below the ocean's surface we've been using VLF more in the past few decades than in the 1960s and it turns out that these radio waves are also flying into space and interacting with charged particles in the Van Allen belts to change how and where they move so basically there's a VLF bubble surrounding the earth and pushing back these high-energy belts we are accidentally changing space weather with our communications way down here in the past few years two teams of researchers managed to create a brand-new material called a time crystal which sounds like some kind of fake magical relic but it's real crystals have a regular atomic structure like how a diamond is made of precisely ordered carbon atoms make a time crystal one team used a chain of ten ytterbium ions the researchers hit them a few times with two lasers one that made an effective magnetic field and one that flipped the spins of the atoms another team used diamonds to create their time crystal with densely packed tiny defects called nitrogen vacancy centers where a carbon atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom so knowing that can you guess what makes a time crystal special is it that it breaks into its component atoms all at once has a constantly changing structure that repeats in cycles vibrates faster and faster and emits a lot of energy or freezes nearby atoms in place just like I'm absolute zero now that doesn't sound right I'm sorry I gave you a head I'm gonna go first you went first last time and I'm gonna say that it's the thing that is the second thing where they what was it what's the second thing again has a constantly changing structure that repeats in cycle that one that is correct I would have been my guest dang it I'm sorry no I wanted to let you go first so that you could eliminate more choices a viable strategy what I've been letting worked well for you so far no I mean not bad well I'm still doing quite poorly the answer is B time crystals have a constantly changing structure that repeats crystals are defined as having an orderly repeating structure in space so time crystals are defined as having an orderly repeating structure in time the idea of a time crystal was first proposed by a theoretical physicist in 2012 and there was a lot of skepticism surrounding it but after years of work physicists were able to come up with a theoretical recipe for time crystals and then two teams of researchers made them a reality time crystals are stable but they aren't in a still equilibrium like a ruby would be instead time crystals are what these researchers are calling non equilibrium matter because the atoms settle into a repetitive moving pattern of slightly changing spins it's not a perpetual motion machine by the way because the crystals need to be blasted by the lasers occasionally to keep them moving but it's still a brain bending example of theory turned reality and physicists are excited to explore more non-equilibrium materials that could exist theoretically time crystal could be used as memory storage in a quantum computer okay the next question is all about animal bodies sometimes they work real differently than ours do for instance male narwhals have a huge tooth sticking out of their heads making them basically aquatic unicorns and biologists have had a lot of different hypotheses about what they use these tusks for like detecting subtle changes in the water with super sensitive nerve endings or chipping away at the ice but in May this year a swimming Narwhal was caught on drone video making jagged up-and-down movements with its tusks a behavior that had never been seen before what do scientists think it was doing making vibrations to talk to other narwhals clubbing fish to stun them acting aggressive to scare the drone away or flinching because fish were tickling it tickle that's my guess tickle yeah I'm sorry I was incorrect I'm gonna go with stunning that is correct oh man those little fish bow-bow bow-bow with my head tooth feel like that's something we would have known already narwhals they're not easy to observe yeah they're out in the middle of nowhere it's cold nobody wants to be up there's just mysterious animals but they don't mind drones I feel like if you got a tooth sticking out of your head there should be multiple reasons why you have it it shouldn't be like one thing you could have like a super sensitive organ that also is a fish club yeah well but maybe it's sensitive just like to the electromagnetism or other unicorns like the ones on land yeah it's it's like a unicorn or dowsing rod their antenna to communicate with radio waves but only with other unicorn animals and that makes the vanillin belt smooth we got it we solved the science the answer is B clubbing their prey this drone video showed a narwhal using its tusks to hit and stun an Arctic cod and then sucking it up as a snack this is the first time scientists have actually seen narwhals using their tooth as a weapon that's not to say other hypotheses are bunked it's possible that narwhals use their tusks for other things too like really important sensory organs or for sexual selection we just have to keep studying them to find out arthropods which includes your arachnids crustaceans and insects have open circulatory systems instead of closed ones like us all of their organs are floating in a fluid called hemolymph which isn't contained in blood vessels hemolymph acts kind of like our blood though and lots of arthropods have hearts to help pump it around and get oxygen to their tissues see spiders have really small abdomens that make it hard for their organs to fit inside and long spindly legs they have tiny hearts which aren't enough to pump hemolymph around their whole bodies so they have another way of getting oxygen to all of their tissues while sea animal again the sea spider are they actually spiders no they're almost certainly crustaceans can't imagine that there are aquatic spiders that I don't know about okay do they tumble to move retract their legs which are made of a stretchy material have long branching guts that contract or have muscles lining each of their legs when the hemolymph around when I was in college I did research on crabs and we would remove the hemolymph from them with lil needles just like hit him in the elbow and just suck it out blue stuff and didn't do tests on it after running them on treadmills so I'm gonna say one of the answers that you said for have muscles lining each of their legs yeah incorrect I'm afraid I'm gonna go with contracting their legs yeah correct they have long branching guts what contract someday at some point I will get a question right there's at least one more question the answer is C pump their guts a sea spider or Pig noggin it doesn't have enough space in its abdomen to hold all its guts so it's suggestive system branches out all over its body and down every leg kind of like how our blood vessels branch out everywhere and instead of having gills see spiders take in oxygen by diffusion through their exoskeleton researchers noticed that the rhythmic peristalsis of a sea spiders gut which is basically the muscles contracting and relaxing to move food along is much stronger than they expected its heart on the other hand pumps pretty weakly after some experiments on twelve species of sea spiders scientists learned that as food gets pushed down their legs oxygen-rich hemolymph gets squeezed around their bodies so the weight of their heart really is their stomach or at least that's what keeps the hemolymph pumping and now for the final question mister says yeah so Alisa you have 500 points Hank you have 1,300 points you can wager any all or none of those points on your answer the next question which follows the same basic theme as our previous questions watery animal type things those are good ever so weird they're so weird so we're gonna cut to commercial break maybe welcome back one species of water boatmen is a teeny-tiny 2 millimeter freshwater insects that can make an incredibly loud noise in 2011 researchers recorded this sound with an underwater microphone from one metre away and found it was an average of 70 8.9 decibels with a max of 99 point 2 decibels in air that would be like standing next to a jackhammer or a power lawnmower and while their muffled underwater you can still hear them from a nearby river bank only the male's can make this sound and researchers think it helps them to woo a mate sure so how do they do it stabbing another male with their penis why would that make noise is he just like ow dude it's just it's just really it's like that they're in their language it's just like dude scream is so loud yeah the same as you know stabbing a sidewalk with a jackhammer that makes noise they have powerful penises or do they do it by sucking up air and farting or roll it out pumping water out their butts so they speed along and rub against sand or rubbing their penis against their abdomen so it's definitely a butt or a penis thing it isn't any of those Michael that's ridiculous I don't know man I didn't invent this insect so that's real good whoever did mm-hmm hey Plus good job on this one it was nature alright I got my answer okay I don't really know how to write it down reveal your answers what does that even mean here's ab poppin they rub their penis against their abs okay pumping water tank is correct of course it's not gonna get you know it makes a loud noise kind of let me tell you about it right now the answer is D rubbing their penis against their abdomen a lot of insects make sounds by stridulation or rubbing different parts of their bodies together grasshoppers use appendages on their hind legs and wings while crickets just use their wings and this water boatman uses its abdomen and a ridge on its para mirror which is what entomologists call part of an insect penis the rubbing area is only around 50 micrometers which is about as wide as a human hair so the researchers aren't sure how they amplify the noise so much they think the loudness happens through something called runaway selection because the lady water boatman seemed to mate with the best and loudest singers and they don't have any predators that hunt them down using sound but you know we should probably leave the penis orchestrations to the insects and find our mates with other kinds of communication but talking hi guys zero zero John I got you I got you a reward Lucy I'm very sorry but I also got your reward technically you're not the only person who's gotten zero on the show in fact you're not the only person at this table who's got zero yeah so thanks for joining us on this scishow quiz show and thanks to all of our patrons on patreon if you want to hear more from Hank and Alyssa together you can check out a couple episodes on our podcast holy fracking science it's sad to be you know sure HFS FS and don't forget of course to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe [Music]

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