802 Nature and Nurture Issues and Debates Paper 3


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[Music] hello welcome to psych boost in this video we'll be looking at nature versus nurture will defining what nature is talking about how it's the role of hereditary forces so biological factors and we'll be defining the role of nurture the role of environmental factors we'll talk about how behaviors results are either nature or nurture but as nature nurtures that they will talk about the relative importance or combination of both of these factors so to start off let's make very clear that the nature-nurture debate is a debate it's an arguing about to what extent behaviors determined due to the influence of a registered factors so genes or environmental factors so experiences or the relative importance the relative combination of both you'd find very few psychologists coming down completely on a nature side of the argument or completely down on a nurture side to the argument however they might favor one more than the other for example here are three figures from history who deductions I might be seen as compassionate evil or very intelligent and as psychologists who might debate how much of this was due to their biological factors say for example was Einstein born intelligent or how much of it was down to the education that Einstein had as a child there are two schools of philosophy on this we have John Locke who's an empiricist and we have Descartes who is a nativist as you can see from the dates when these philosophers were active this is a very old debate day car the nativist suggests now some aspects of human behavior our name were born with forms of behavior which we inherit from our parents whereas Locke took the opposite view there when you were born and your brain was empty it was like a blank slate waiting for experiences to happen which would then be recorded on this blank slate unlock use the latin for blank slate tabula rasa let's break this down between nature and nurture so nature links the nativists like descartes they assume that biological hereditary factors are far more important in determining behavior that you're born with knowledge already inside you so your knowledge is innate a lot of studies that we do in psychology showing a biological origin for behavior like genetic evidence for schizophrenia if we talk about evolutionary argument for make preferences in relationships and if we talk about aggression has been the result of imbalances of the neurotransmitters dopamine serotonin or maybe an imbalance of testosterone they're quite strongly linked to our genetics so we'd be given our Nietzsche explanation for aggressive behavior so on the other side as I mentioned John Locke was an empiricist the Parris's are saying I'll experiences are far more important in the resulting behavior we're not born of knowledge but knowledge comes right interaction with the world now psychology studies that would agree with the empiricist well of you our social learning theory so for example the Bobo doll study demonstrated that children could be taught to behave aggressively to a stimulus and of course the behavior studies by Skinner by Pavlov also demonstrated that behavior comes from an interaction with the environment from learning what behaviors result in good outcomes so that's a brief outline of what nature is and a brief outline of what nurture is then came back to the original philosophers and give an indication about where my link to from other areas of psychology that we've looked at the nature nurture debate also does link to determinism be careful if we need to talk about nature nurture not to fall into a determinist answer but we can slowly link to it so both the nature and the nurture oddments are deterministic but they link two completely different factors when explaining how behavior is determined so of course psychologists who explain behaviors due to nature factors or saying we are biologically determined to act in a certain way due to our biology where as though psychologists coming from a nurture point of view will say our environment causes us to behave in a certain way therefore it's environmental determinism so an interesting place to have this argument might be the exploration for aggression now there's a lot of research in aggression we suggest that males are more aggressive than females and throughout human history and across cultures males have been seen to be especially aggressive now is this due to eeveelution Airy pressures which would link to hereditary or is it that we have societies which in some way reinforce male violence which would mean males a violent due to environmental determinism one interesting way we can try and pull apart whatever behavior is based on nurture effects or nature effects is by the use of a twin study so we've got monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins we know that monozygotic twins have 100% matching DNA whereas dizygotic twins are about 50% of their DNA in common what a zygotic twins and dizygotic twins are the same age they tend to share the same household the same education the same diet so differences we see between monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins in behaviors we might suggest a result of their genetic similarity now we can measure the similarity of twins by looking at the concordance rate what's the likelihood if one twin has a disorder or shows a behavior that the other twin will do as well so this concordance rate if his higher and monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins who suggest as a nature of fact there and it has been shown for schizophrenia that monozygotic twins do have a high concordance rate then dizygotic twins but it is not hundred percent if schizophrenia was purely genetic disorder purely nature then if one twin on schizophrenia the other twin would have schizophrenia such as for example a concordance rate of blue-eyes is 100% if one twin has blue eyes than the other monozygotic twin will also have blue eyes so we can see there was development soreness complexes schizophrenia there must be an interaction between nature and nurture effects so most psychologists don't take a dichotomous view so they don't take up one or the other approach they have an interactionist view the idea in the nature and nurture factors both work together in influence and behavior now one way this can work is through the de fisa stress model we can suggest a certain genetic setup might actually give you a high risk factor to a particular disorder let's say for schizophrenia but you need a certain environmental trigger in order to start that schizophrenia off so you could have two twins that have the same genes one develop schizophrenia but one doesn't because one person has the environmental experiences in order to trigger it you can also see this in a genetic explanation for aggression when we look at the short variant of the moji many people have the short very emoji but as seen with those people with a traumatic childhood are they're more likely to go on and be aggressive in later life assessing that is short very emoji gives people a vulnerability to aggression and one other suggestion for the interaction between nature and nurture or biology and environment is something called epigenetics now epigenetics is the idea that of course you're born with a Sat genetic code and generally will express itself in one way however it seems that genes are not activated at birth or genes expressed themselves in one particular way unless there is an environmental effect and this environmental effect can then change the way that these genes are interpreted so environmental effects could be stuff like smoking or it could be diet related it's even suggested that these changes due to environment can then go to affect the offspring of those people have been affected so that's an interesting thing to consider if something as simple as your diet could go on to affect the behaviors of your children in the future so I hope you enjoyed the Cyprus video please if you haven't already click 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