American Pageant Chapter 10 APUSH Review


Jocz Productions


The American Pageant (Book),AP United States History,George Washington (US President),John Adams (US President),Alien and Sedition Acts,Alexander Hamilton (U.S. Congressperson),Jocz,Jocz Productions,Federalist Party (Political Party),Whiskey Rebellion (Military Conflict),XYZ Affair,Jay's Treaty,Kentucky and Virginia Resolution,Sedition Act,Crash Course,apush

welcome to another dose productions video in this video we're taking a look at the administration's of George Washington and John Adams the New Republic from 1789 to 1800 so we all know Washington is the first president he becomes the first president of the u.s. in 1789 when he takes the oath of office he's unanimously elected and he sets many precedents that put the principles of the Constitution in practice he's doing things for the first time and he's establishing things that future leaders will also do he does only serve a two-term presidency which everyone up until Franklin Roosevelt will follow and then they'll change the Constitution he established the cabinet which is his group of advisors who would serve as the heads of different departments and Washington's cabinet is filled with some all-stars and you should know that Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson he eventually will become the political opposition and become the head of the rival political party to the Federalists secretary of the Treasury who's going to play a huge role in the new nation Alexander Hamilton and you got some others in there such as Secretary of War Henry Knox key idea extremely important conflict will develop as Federalist ideas are implemented by Alexander Hamilton you're going to get the creation of political parties and in this early period you also get the Judiciary Act of 1789 it organized the Supreme Court with one chief justice there is John Jay he will be our first and also five associate justices will also be named this Judiciary Act also sets up the lower court system so you could see the government is being established now remember one of the things that needed to be done is the Bill of Rights needed to be added to the Constitution the Bill of Rights was added in order to alleviate concerns of the anti-federalists remember a lot of people didn't want to ratify because they were worried about too powerful of a government these bill of rights are largely written by James Madison and these include the first ten amendments to the Constitution they're intended to provide protections against government power the enumerated individual rights and they also restricted the power of the government some examples of this the first amendment providing for protections of speech religion press and assembly the fourth amendment preventing unreasonable searches and seizures without probable cause and others which guarantee rights to the states and so on now one of the most important ideas to understand for this period is Hamilton's financial plan this guy is a big deal that's why he was on or is on the $10 bill they're talking about changing this and Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton developed a financial program to pay off the debt and to develop American manufacturing remember the nation under the Articles of Confederation faced numerous difficulties Hamilton wants to stabilize the economy and he's going to attempt to do so through a variety of methods part one of his plan was outlined in the report on public credit this called for the federal government to pay off the national debt at face value and for the federal government to assume the war debts of the individual states and you could see that on that cartoon the national government is taking those debts from different states this proposal is known as the assumption plan and it is going to be controversial there was a concern that speculators would make money off of this plan and this also was increasing the power and the role of the federal government a lot of people who were aligned with Thomas Jefferson initially rejected the plan but a compromise was reached with Thomas Jefferson where the plan would be accepted and in exchange the capital of the United States would be moved closer to the south in Washington DC the second part of Hamilton's plan could be seen in the report on the manufacturers and in it he Hamilton supported one higher tariffs a tariff is a tax on imports and to excise taxes a tax on a specific good such as whiskey there's a couple of reasons for the the tariffs in particular would protect American infant industries from foreign competition Hamilton wanted to see a nation of manufacturers he wanted the United States economy to industrialize the tariffs would protect against British really competition also Hamilton wants to raise revenue to pay off the debt which the excise taxes would hopefully accomplish once again this part of his plan was controversial especially amongst non manufacturers the tariffs would actually make goods more expensive so there was opposition largely in the south but also in the West in the agricultural areas the most important part of Hamilton's plan that you should know about is part three he created a national bank run by the US government that would help create a stable healthy economy and currency this was a key part of his plan this Bank would deposit government funds it would print money and this was really key to Hamilton's vision there is a huge debate over the Bank of the United States and it's not just about the bank it's also about the power of the federal government under the new constitution and here's the key part you should know Jefferson who was eventually going to be the head of the party the Jeffersonian Republicans said this the Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create a bank and they believed in what is known as a strict interpretation of the Constitution in other words the government could only do what the Constitution says the government could do they are extremely worried about the growing power of the federal government and they also feel like the bank would benefit the wealthy the merchant class and they reject this plan on the other end Hamilton and the Federalists party they argue the Necessary and Proper Clause in the Constitution allowed Congress to create the Bank of the US since it was necessary to carry out its enumerated powers they are using something called the elastic clause and they said they were advocates of a loose or broad interpretation of the Constitution what the Constitution did not forbid it allowed and since this was part of Congress's ability to tax and regulate the economy the bank could be created and it was no key to all of this is that you understand that during this period you have the rise of the first party system when you see that term no it is developing in the 1790s and there are no political parties mentioned in the Constitution many people thought they were bad that they would not happen in this new nation but they quickly do and they're going to be known as the Federalists versus the Jeffersonian Republicans some key things you should know about them the Federalists are advocates they're supporters of Hamilton's economic vision which is largely manufacturing industrialization they are advocates of a loose interpretation of the Constitution or a broad interpretation of the Constitution and because of these two things they tended to have the support of the wealthy the merchant class and their strength is in the Northeast and in cities and urban areas keep in mind they're advocates of a strong central government and they are pro England that'll make more sense in just a few slides the Jeffersonian Republicans on the other hand supported Jefferson's economic vision they wanted an agrarian society they favored farmers they believed farmers were the backbone of the nation and the economy and they tended to have a lot of support in the south and the West they are advocates of a strict interpretation of the Constitution if it's not in the Constitution unless the Constitution specifically states something the federal government can't do it they favorite state rights and they're going to be pro-french this will make more sense in just a moment it's important you know about the Whiskey Rebellion which was a big test for the new national government remember part of Hamilton's financial plan including an excise tax on whiskey this was intended to generate revenue for the federal government and it hurt a lot of farmers because they distilled whiskey from their excess corn and as a result farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay the tax you could see in the image them tarring and feathering a tax collector tax collectors were oftentimes attacked and they felt the farmers felt this was a violation of their liberties this is seen as a challenge to the authority of the new federal government and recall the failure of the first national government the Articles of Confederation in dealing with a similar rebellion known as Shay's rebellion so George Washington decides to take steps he takes over the state militia something like 15,000 troops and he stops the rebellion by a show of force there's no bloodshed at all but he takes command and really important it demonstrated to many the power and effectiveness of the federal government the national government proved that its authority was going to be respected and followed however not everyone liked this critics such as Jefferson were disturbed by the use of force they saw this as a far away strong national government crushing the liberty of the people and they criticized the government's actions another challenge you should know about is the foreign policy challenges the young nation face and really the biggest one is going to come from the French Revolution it deeply divided America you know the French Revolution starts off with the storming of the Bastille but pretty soon the new French Republic would be fighting the different monarchies of Europe and there was a question in the young nation should the u.s. help France France actually asked the United States to help defend its territory in the French West Indies against its European enemies and there was division between the Federalists and they were really concerned about the violence of the French Revolution remember heads are getting chopped off and they also wanted to avoid a war with England so Washington felt the nation was too weak it was too young and he and his mind felt the franco-american alliance that was signed following the Battle of Saratoga was no longer enforced now that the monarchy was gone on the other hand the Democratic Republicans led by Jefferson felt the French Revolution was an extension of our own fight for liberty and we should join the French people in this fight and England was seizing American ships with something called impressment so they actually wanted to help out France in their war against Europe and Jefferson actually resigns as Secretary of State over his disagreements with US policy now George wash issued the proclamation of neutrality in 1793 this declares the United States neutral once again he wants to stay out of this European war this neutrality is tested when a french minister to the united states citizen edmond Jenay traveled in the u.s. trying to convince people in the u.s. to support france he is violating the rules of diplomacy and eventually he is condemned and recalled by france he ends up staying in the United States but once again American neutrality is being challenged it wasn't just France we also had issues with our old mother England and also Spain remember England continued to cause the u.s. problems there was that issue of impressment where they're taking American sailors and forcing them into the British Navy and they occupy forts in this northwestern territory you could see on the map right here they were supposed to leave those forts under the Treaty of Paris in 1783 so you've got a lot of problems and Washington wants to avoid war so he sends the Chief Justice John Jay to try to negotiate with England to try to avoid this war and this ends up becoming Jay's treaty of 1794 the treaty does the following British agreed to leave the forts on the frontier they would evacuate those forts but it said nothing about stopping Britain's harassment of American ships or the fact of the native issue and what this meant was England was actually giving weapons to Native Americans selling them weapons and these weapons were being used on Americans on the frontier Republicans hated this treaty they felt it was bowing to England but it does manage to keep the u.s. neutral it keeps us out of the war but it's important to note Jay's treaty was unpopular amongst Jeffersonian Republicans but it kept us out of a war another issue was Spain recall Spain had previously blocked American access to the Mississippi River and under the Articles we were powerless to deal with this issue and George Washington wants to deal with Spain as well Spain gets a little nervous once the u.s. is talking to England so they're willing to negotiate and that leads us to pick nice Treaty of 79 five Spain agrees to allow the u.s. usage of the Mississippi River and very important the right of deposit at the Port of New Orleans which is hugely important to people on the frontier farmers because that is their trade pick knees treaty also made the northern boundary of Florida the 31st parallel you could see right there on the map there was some dispute between the United States and Spain so pick nice treaty Jay's treaty two important treaties you should know about Native Americans also continue to cause the u.s. issues justifiably so recall Native American land continued to be encroached upon by settlers moving west you could see that in the yellow the u.s. is moving westward and Native Americans are really really concerned recall after the American Revolution there's no proclamation of 1763 line keeping Americans out of this region as a result of this expansion by white settlers native tribes formed the Northwest Confederacy under the Miami chief little turtle he is going to begin to organize Native American resistance in this region he's getting some weapons from England but at the Battle of Fallen Timbers natives defeated by US Army led by general Anthony Wayne so the United States crushes this resistance and eventually you're going to get the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 signed which the defeated tribes gave up claims to the Ohio territory you could see the treaty being negotiated there and there is the line at the Treaty of Greenville although there were various issues and challenges facing George Washington's administration it was relatively successful at keeping the nation stable out of a war and eventually you're going to get John Adams becoming President Washington decided to leave office after two terms he sets a precedent and he gives his farewell address in 1796 now this farewell dress is that not actually delivered it's published in newspapers and he warns the nation of a couple of things one stay clear of permanent alliances he really is concerned about foreign alliances entangling the United States into European affairs he also talks about the danger of political parties against political factions he's trying to encouraged national unity by this point they're already on their way to being formed or George Washington gives the little warning about them nonetheless in the election of 1796 you've got two guys running John Adams the former VP and he is running against the Democratic Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson remember former member of Washington's cabinet the election takes place in John Adams narrowly defeats Thomas Jefferson and becomes the president of the United States you can see on that map where the Federalists support was and where the Jeffersonian Republicans support largely was as well even though by this point they have very different political ideas because no one anticipated political parties Thomas Jefferson since he finished his second becomes the vice president this issue will be fixed later on by the 12th amendment in 1804 just as George Washington had to deal with problems of trying to keep the u.s. neutral so does John Adams in fact Frances war against European nations was a major problems for John Adams recall France felt America violated the franco-american Treaty of 1778 and they wanted America's help you have seizing of American ships mainly by England but also France and so Adams wants to avoid he wanted to avoid a war with France and he sent US diplomats to Paris to try to negotiate this event is known as the XYZ affair because French officials known only as X Y & Z attempted to get the Americans to bribe them in order to even start negotiations with the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand they wanted 250,000 dollars just for the right to sit down and talk to the French Minister needless to say many Americans were angry over this attempt at a bribe and you could see the reaction in America in that image right there this XYZ affair outraged many Americans and the popular slogan was millions for defense but not one cent for tribute we would not pay to be left alone and to be allowed to be neutral there was a strong demand for war amongst many Americans and John Adams wants to avoid this popular call for war because as Washington recognized our military was too weak our nation was young a quasi war does break out between the u.s. and France and this is an undeclared naval war between France and the u.s. mainly in the West Indies at sea and luckily it doesn't get any bigger because in 1800 you have the convention of 1800 the alliance between the US and France Napoleon and the US were able to negotiate and this keeps us out of a war with France and lastly a really important thing you should understand that happens during the Adams administration is a major showdown between the state governments and the federal government under the John Adams administration Congress passed a series of laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 and the reason there passed is really political they're passed by Federalists controlled Congress to limit the political opposition of the Democratic Republican Party so what did they do there was the Naturalization Act which increased the time from 5 to 14 years for immigrants to become American citizens and this really was intended because most immigrants voted for the Democratic Republican Party the alien Act gave the president the power he could deport arrest immigrants considered dangerous and finally the big one the Sedition Act made it illegal to criticize the government so newspapers or political opponents if they criticize the government or Congress they could be thrown in jail all of these acts were justified in the name of security this idea we need to keep the nation safe and therefore Liberty needed to be reduced but it was very clear that these acts were political and they violated such rights such as those found in the First Amendment and these federal acts were resisted by something called the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions the reason this has passed is to oppose federal laws that the Democratic Republican Party felt were unconstitutional so they say these laws pass by Federalists in Congress endorsed by Adams were against the Constitution the Kentucky resolution was written secretly by Thomas Jefferson the Virginia resolutions was written by James Madison and they said a state could nullify federal laws passed by Congress they felt were unconstitutional and the Alien and Sedition Acts and their mind were unconstitutional and therefore states could nullify it they can cancel they can ignore they can not obey these federal laws because the government is exceeding its delegated powers they believed in something called the compact theory in which states had made a compact with the national government and if that compact was violated by that national government they argued they did not have to obey those laws this is extremely important because the argument of nullification will be used later on by states such as South Carolina in the 1830s with regard to a tariff controversy and it will be used by southerners when they secede from the union so make sure you know about the idea of nullification and how that plays out this battle between federal and state governments that's going to do it for today hopefully you learned a lot if you did click like on the video if you have any questions post them in the comment section check out a push explain calm for all sorts of resources and have a beautiful day peace