Animal Clothes Exploding Toads SciShow Quiz Show

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SciShow,science,Hank,Green,education,learn,michael aranda,christie wilcox,an absolutely remarkable thing,venomous: how earth's deadliest creatures mastered biochemistry,authors,quiz show,chicken glasses,cannibalism,dung beetles,beetle boots,dental silicone,infrared,Lazzaro Spallanzani,frog pants,fertilization,exploding toads,crows,livers,earthquakes,liquifaction,ectopic pregnancy,lithopedion,calcification

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[Music] welcome to scishow quiz show where we try and stump very smart people who know a lot of random things about science I'm Michael Aranda your host today we have Hank green who's the author of a book that is apparently full of surprise billboards and sponsors and a bunch of very cool sports teams it's true and you know about this I may have heard a little something he's competing against one of scishow script editors Kristy Wilcox who's our resident venom and weird animal expert and even wrote a book about it it's true but that book maybe he doesn't have billboards I don't think there's any billboards in it okay we can fix that patreon help as a special thank you to our supporters on patreon we've selected two people at random to win some prizes so Hank you're playing for Deborah Joseph hey Deborah Kristy you're playing for Jeff Albert hi Jeff Steffen show our players and the audience what they can win Deborah and Jeff Deborah and Jeff hello there you wonderful contestants are you all ready to find out what's at stake in today's game everybody's gonna get the autograph final answer cards from the final round today the winner gonna get a pin that proclaims their victory to the world the I won scishow quiz show pin and the loser gonna get a pin that well it tells everyone that you lost the game but it's a very nice pin and you know what I'm going rogue everybody gets some scishow swag today well not everyone but Deborah get some swag Geoff get some swag I get some swag too right dude do I get some swag too you both start out with a thousand scishow but each time you answer a question correctly you'll win 200 points if you get it wrong you'll lose 100 points can i know- you can try okay round one is about animals in clothes because who doesn't love a good dog pin a sweater or a snake in a party hat agreed question one since the early 1900s thousands of chicken eye glasses have been created and sold the basic design is pretty simple two lenses with a thin metal band to clip or pin them onto a beak over time people started making rose-tinted glasses and in the late nineteen eight someone even designed chicken contact lenses but they aren't just high-fashion they were meant to help farmers with a key problem that comes from raising lots of egg-laying chickens at once so what was the goal of these glasses I like the idea that we might have thought it was aesthetic like that the chickens were putting on glasses for like a reason but then they got them contact lenses because the chickens didn't want to look like I mean obviously so was the goal of these glasses to trick them into eating cheap grains huh preventing cannibalism oh my god preventing inbreeding it's all gonna be sad or preventing aggression while collecting eggs I'm gonna say that it's to make them eat the cheap grain that was a good made up fact though I liked it let's go with the preventing cannibalism you are correct the answer is B preventing cannibalism egg-laying chickens can be pretty brutal especially if they're packed together in tight quarters they'll peck at each other and pull out feathers and a couple things seem to especially aggravate them like too much bright light or seeing bloody wounds on other chickens at some point in the 1800's someone tried making tiny glasses to keep chickens from attacking and eating each other and the first eye protector for chickens was patented in 1903 unlike our glasses chicken hi glasses make their vision worse and rose-colored lenses were designed to try to hide blood the reasoning goes if the whole world is tinted red chickens might not notice red splotches on each other although we're not quite sure how well those glasses actually worked a few experiments have shown that red light could make chickens calmer and even stimulate egg production so even though modern farmers still have to prevent cannibalism they usually focus on making living conditions less stressful and chicken glasses have largely gone out of style maybe we should move on to dung beetles which are known for their poop hoarding some species take fresh stinky dung and roll a ball of it through the desert to snack on later it's just like you do yeah researchers have noticed that beetles climb on top of their balls to orient themselves before traveling just like you do but also they climbed more under certain conditions like in the middle of the day hmm to test a hypothesis about why research has made some little silicon boots for the beetles front legs when they wore the boots they didn't climb on the poop as often and that gave scientists a hint about what might be going on so why else do dung beetles climb on their poop balls is it to get sticky feet for traction to feel for any damage to warm up or to cool down boots I'm gonna go with the warming up to warm up incorrectly to gain traction just abstain the answer is D to cool down sand and African savannas can get really hot like over 60 degrees Celsius so a lot of organisms have adaptations to stay cool and for one species of dung beetle it's their ball of poop to figure this out researchers created two three meter wide arenas in the South African desert one shady and one hot and plopped some dung beetles inside they noticed that when the ground was cooler than 50 degrees the beetles would just roll their balls out no problem but if the ground was hotter than that they would hop on the poop more often and preen their front legs possibly cooling them down by spitting up a liquid using an infrared camera the scientists discovered that the dung beetles front legs heated up as much as 10 degrees while they were rolling and cooled down again on top of the ball and as one final test the scientists made tiny boots out of a dental silicone to protect some beetles front legs from heating up as much and these snazzy dressers climbed their dung balls 35% less often so it turns out that dung beetles aren't only rolling a snack around it's also a big portable cold pack so they don't have to find shade in the 18th century natural philosophers were studying animal behavior and biology by messing around with lots of strange experiments and some important progress came from one particular technique sewing pants for frogs some pants were made of stretchy animal bladder or loose-fitting cloth but the frogs would generally hop out eventually researchers used custom tailored pants made from waxed taffeta of waterproof material sometimes they even sewed little straps like overalls so what were they trying to learn with these experiments whether frogs excrete waste on land or in water yeah how frogs move and hunt for food how fertilization works or how different fabrics affect frogs sex drive no idea game words it's worse for you if you go first if you don't know unless you know you feel like yeah I have no idea okay it's not the sex drive thing it should be they wanted to figure out if the frogs were pooping on land or in water in Korea I'm gonna go with the fertilization the answer is see how fertilization works by the time lazzaro spallanzani was experimenting with pants for frogs in the 1760s a design for tight taffeta pants had pretty much been nailed down at the time we knew that frogs had semen and that semen was possibly made up of a thicker more goopy portion and a thinner fluid the idea of sperm wasn't quite figured out yet to understand what semen did and how fertilization worked spawns Ani gathered up some male and female frogs then he sewed pants on some of the males and let the frogs go at it which he called the act of generation afterward he watched the eggs that were laid to see if they developed and the frogs that were wearing semen blocking pants never fertilized eggs so he concluded that frogs needed this stuff from the male and female to make babies eggs alone wouldn't cut it there were probably simpler ways to figure that out but frog pants make the story that much better okay this next round is called mysterious disasters and this first question also involves frogs but it's a little less cute in 2005 hundreds of common toads near one pond in Hamburg Germany were dying in a weirdly explosive gut spewing way typically toads protect themselves by secreting toxins or inflating so they look too big for predators to swallow but those defenses turned deadly because of something that happened to all of these toads what caused their mysterious deaths they just started exploding snakes that bit into inflated toads and pop them like balloons this is serious crows that avoided the toxins had picked out the toads livers a fungus that released a lot of gas into toads guts or a virus that infected toadies and glands and made their skin really thin I'm getting gas producing fungus that's what I would also say I stopped listening after that well it's the last one again a virus that infected toe toisan glands and made their skin really thin I'm gonna go with that one incorrect it can't be the snakes it's not the snakes right the answer is B crows that ate livers when these exploding frogs first hit the news there were a lot of frantic hypotheses about what could have happened and after some initial tests microbial infection was ruled out but one veterinarian took a closer look and noticed a weird pattern the frogs all had a small circular cuts in the exact same place and their livers were gone now this kind of sounds like the work of an amphibian serial killer but really it was just clever hungry crows they didn't want a mouth full of toxins they went straight for the tasty liver according to that researcher if the toads try to inflate themselves with a missing liver the rest of their organs wouldn't stay put so that's why so many of them popped next up we have a bigger scale disaster sinking cargo ships if you're a human what if you're a toad which is the bigger scale disaster your ship sinking and being like oh we got to get rescued or King exploding what if the cargo ship was full of Toad pants and all of those pants got lost at sea it would be a tragedy we've never know anything about toad semen again one of the most unexpectedly dangerous things ships can carry are solid bulk cargoes this is basically solid uniform stuff that gets dumped straight onto the ship without containers like a bunch of iron ore okay these particles inevitably have some water mixed in and if the ship sways and vibrates too much the cargo can start acting like a liquid slosh around and cause serious damage or even sink the ship what natural phenomenon creates similar conditions to what's happening to these ships rip currents volcanic eruptions earthquakes flash flooding rip currents yeah man I wouldn't even guess that the answer is C earthquakes just like the ground beneath our feet some solid bulk cargoes are just a bunch of small grains crammed together when the particles are touching there's friction between them to hold them in place plus little gaps this framework makes the cargo or dirt act like a solid but liquefaction can happen when those conditions are disrupted and those gaps collapse so the grains lose their stability and start acting like a liquid this can happen to sandy soil during an earthquake because of vibrations and caused buildings to sink on a boat there's always a little water between the particles and the water pressure can increase as the cargo gets dumped in and the ship sways in a viber it's compressing the gaps in causing liquefaction when the cargo sloshes it can cause a serious imbalance in boats and sink them which is a problem according to one paper over around three decades there were at least 18 ships and crews lost to liquefaction so it's a problem engineers are still working on [Music] all right let's move on to our final question all I'm gonna tell you before you place your bets is that it is about human body weirdness you may bet any or all of your points you may not bet more points than you have how many points the previous episode requires us to state this very explicitly Christy you've got 1,400 points Hank you've got 500 points Wow it's gonna be a bit of a hill to climb there well you guys place your bets let's go to commercial break there's a safe bet for you welcome back sometimes fertilization can happen and an embryo can start developing outside the uterus like in a fallopian tube that's called ectopic pregnancy and in even rarer cases an embryo can start developing somewhere in the abdomen where it's definitely not supposed to be weird this is a really risky situation and often times the embryo dies but if it's allowed to grow for a couple months it can become too large to be broken down and reabsorbed by the body so something strange happens to protect the mother from this dead tissue what is it it calcifies and becomes basically a big stone it grows a layer of cotton as filaments and basically becomes a big hairball it becomes a big benign cyst full of blood none of these are going to be good the nearest organ causes a layer of cell growth so for example it might look like a third kidney like that so all of those are weird I'm so excited to find out which one it is are you ready yeah reveal your answers kidney oh my looks like Christy's got got the got the answer there 398 additional points I've had a thousand I just wanted to go negative one time the answer is a it calcifies this phenomenon is called a litho PD on which means stone child in Greek and it's super rare just a couple hundred cases have ever been reported in human history basically it happens because calcium compounds sometimes get deposited as an immune response when there's tissue damage from breast tissue to tendons so a chunk of dead tissue in the abdomen likely looks like damage to our immune system and gets covered in a tough a mineralized layer of calcium with opee Dion's often don't cause medical problems besides some reported pain so they can go undetected for years typically until doctors notice a strange tiny skeletal shape in an x-ray I lost 4 Deborah I went negative for you oh yes a dead so Deborah you have to send us a pin a shirt and a sign thing right yeah and you have to sign a piece that like an index card and send it to us thanks Deborah well thank you for joining us on this scishow quiz show and thanks as always to all our patrons on patreon who make these videos possible if you want to read Hanks book you can find a link to that in description if you want to read Christie's book you can find a link to that in the description sorry for hitting the roads [Music]

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