Cellular Respiration 5 Oxidative Phosphorylation


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hi this is the fifth and final video in the cellular respiration series in this video we are going to look at oxidative phosphorylation which is also known as the electron transport chain you may remember that a mitochondrion looks a little like this it has an outer membrane and an inner membrane and we're going to take a close up look at the inner mitochondrial membrane so here is the membrane and within it are a bunch of protein complexes they are known as complex 1 or NADH dehydrogenase complex 2 or succinate dehydrogenase complex 3 or cytochrome c reductase and complex 4 or cytochrome c oxidase these are the major protein complexes of the electron transport chain the other factors involved in the electron transport chain are coenzyme q-10 and the cytochrome c complex the other large protein complex involved here is called ATP synthase and as the name suggests it is the complex that makes ATP so the process begins with NADH which was produced by glycolysis beta oxidation and the TCA cycle this nadh is oxidized to nad plus and donates to electrons to the electron transport chain these two electrons get passed between the complexes like this and are finally accepted by oxygen and with a couple of protons this produces water this oxygen is supplied by breathing air from our atmosphere and to provide this is the reason that all animals need to breathe now as the electrons are passed between the complexes they pump protons out of the mitochondrial matrix into the inter membrane space like this complex one pumps out four protons complex three pumps out four protons and complex four pumps out two protons therefore in total one NADH pumps 10 protons across the membrane a similar process happens when fadh2 is used as the electron donor two electrons get donated to complex two which in turn passes them to coenzyme q-10 and onward down the electron transport chain because complex one is not involved when fadh2 is the electron donor only six protons get pumped across the membrane finally these protons then flow back down their electrochemical gradient through the ATP synthase for every four protons that flow through the ATP synthase a single ATP is produced I should just say that different textbooks will quote different numbers here I've quoted the number from Lenin Jers principles of biochemistry fifth edition so if you do the math it turns out that one NADH will produce 2.5 ATP and one fadh2 will produce 1.5 ATP and that's how a cell produces ATP for its energy supply if you've enjoyed this tutorial please help us produce more by making a donation at WWE and written tutorials calm