Chap 5 Consciousness and Its Altered States

hello everyone we are now in chapter 5 of introduction to psychology and this chapter is entitled consciousness and its outward state question what makes you conscious does uh is it when someone is looking at you but anyway in psychology we define consciousness as the different levels of awareness of one's past and feeling so uh in another sense consciousness is just awareness you're aware of what is going on inside and you're aware of what is going on outside or you are aware of your environment and yet consciousness it's it has different levels it's in a continuum different levels it may include creating images in one's mind following one's thought processes or having unique emotional experiences so we have this continuum of of consciousness or the levels of consciousness uh we have the first one which is um i mean this container of consciousness refers to a wide range of experiences from being acutely aware and alert to being totally unaware and and responsive so we have this first um first continuum is the controlled processes these are activities that require full awareness alertness and concentration to reach some goal the focus attention required in carrying out control processes usually interferes with the execution of other ongoing activities for example if you are talking on a cell phone so you need to be conscious you need to you have to have that controlled process that you are you know what you are or you are about to say you you know what you are thinking and even as of now and i was talking to you when i am talking to you this is a controlled process that i have to i have to know or i have to make uh my talk as as understandable as possible and that you could you could also get what i want i want to to convey to you so that is a controlled process the next uh continuum is the automatic processes these are activities that require little awareness take minimal attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities for example eating eating is an automatic process that you have to chew it and you have to swallow it so even if you are reading you can still eat so eating is an example of automatic processes the third one is the day draining it is an activity that requires low level of awareness often of course during automatic processes and involves fantasizing or dreaming while away usually we daydream in situations that require little attention or during repetitious or boring activities such as when you are when you are just listening to a lecturer sometimes you got bored and and your mind is already wandering into something somewhere else so men and women daydreams are uh somehow the daydream daydreams of men and women are somehow similar so again the third one is the daydream we have the control the second is the automatic and the third is the daydreaming the fourth one we're in our topic would mostly focus on is on the altered states of consciousness it results from using any number of procedures such as meditation psychoactive drug hypnosis or sleep deprivation to produce an awareness that differs from normal consciousness so why why would this chapter focus more on this one it's because in consciousness or awareness we talk about that in our sensation and perception so what makes us aware is really because of the sensation that we experience and also the perception that that is going through in our mind every now and then but as of this chapter again we will focus more on the continue on this altered state of consciousness another one continuum is on the slip so this is a different one from the altered state so we would also tackle about sleep sleep consists of five different stages that involve different levels of awareness consciousness and responsiveness as well as different levels of physiological arousal the deepest state of sleep borders on unconsciousness so we have the sleep although there is still levels on that one there are stages and that we will tackle that later dreaming is also a state of consciousness in which we are asleep but experience a variety of astonishing visual auditory and tactile images often connected in strange ways and often in color people blind from birth have only auditory or lifestyle dreams but there is actually an interesting um interesting fact about dreams did you know that the dreams before it most of it uh yeah if not all are in black and white but then when the hobby of the polar tv became the dreams of the people become scholared as well because uh somehow there's uh there's a an association on the coming of the colored tv and the college dreams but anyway we will also talk about dreamings and the theories of dreams so the last continuum is the unconscious i'm not sure if this is the last but maybe the second address the unconscious and implicit memory when we are faced with very threatening wishes or desires this is according to the theory of void of unconsciousness especially uh when when there is a threatening threatening event or or if they wishes or desires or especially for sexual or aggressive if it is sex or aggressive we automatically defend our self-esteem by placing these psychologically threatening thoughts into a mental place of which we are not aware called the unconscious we cannot voluntarily recall unconscious thoughts or images according to freud he believes that a bigger and the largest part of our mind is the unconscious part wherein there are some thoughts and desires that should not be blurred out maybe because of the social social norms that we have where it would be implanted in our consciousness and and he said that we can i mean the royal road to unconsciousness is your dream so somehow you could understand what is inside your unconscious mind through your dreams so maybe there there are many many dreams you know there are dreams that you could not even understand but if this person came out to my gym and i don't even have met that person also according to freud it could be that it is encoded in your unconsciousness and again what what is inside your unconscious those are threatening wishes or decide if they are sexual or aggressiveness and even memories that are that are uh bad or maybe threatening memories that you had that could also be encoded in the unconscious and increased memory and the last continuum is unconsciousness so it's a different one with the with the with the uh implicit number that i have mentioned a while ago which can result from disease trauma a blow of the head or general medical anesthesia results in a total lack of sensory awareness and complete loss of responsiveness to one's environment so this is this is the type of consciousness where you're not really conscious uh just like we just like uh in a person who is in a coma no he is not oh maybe he is somehow somehow conscious a little bit but then most of the time he is unconscious example if you are knocked down or you have the blow in the head or you have anesthesia when you are when you have to go through a surgery uh that is the unconsciousness part of the container continuum of consciousness so uh one important thing on our consciousness is our biological club these are internal timing devices that are genetically set to regulate biospeciological responses for different periods of time and we will learn you would learn more about this one in our biological psychology but this biological classroom i mean our body follows a biological clock that's why during the night we go to sleep we become sleepy also because of of those biological changes that happens in inside us and what else uh in the morning we have to wake up or even if your secretion of urine it can be set for hours or maybe even your your time of the middle that can also be set by the biological club so it is bad it is best if you have regular eating schedule and regular sleep schedule so that your body will follow that um that cycle everything and and yeah so also our body temperature it is uh determined by our biological fla so there is a rise and fall in our internal body temperature or for women like me we have a 28 day menstrual cycle and that is um that is determined by our biological flux we also have circadian rhythm it refers to a biological flag that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses within a time period in 24 hours or about one day so in biological clock that could be annually uh it depends on on what kind of cycle that you would have but circadian rhythm we only refers to the 24 hour cycle so that is where the sleep and weight wake cycle belongs to so let's first take up the sleep so again this is one of the continuum of consciousness so there are stages of sleep the first one is the alpha stage it is marked by feelings of being relaxed and drowsy usually with the eyes closed alpha waves have low amplitude and high frequency so we have different kinds of brain waves so we call alpha waves it has low amplitude and high frequency so it is very low that means that our brain and these waves are actually from the firings of our brain that can be detected by the ecg or it is an instrument that can detect the firing of groups of um of neurons in our brain so when our brain is very active firing firing uh evidence and then those neurotransmitter messages are firing those those neural messages then it would be detected by the by the eng it's eeg electro interface so alpha wave we have one kind of of brain wave the alpha wave which is the out that means that our by our brain is very active and even our body is very active as well we have better way for in our um anyway we will talk about that later so we have the alpha stages it's it's because it is uh it is characterized with alpha waves so we have two kinds of sleep the non-rem sleep under and sleep so rem stands for rapid eye movement so nine rem sleep it is where you spend approximately eighty percent of your sleep time nine rev is divided into sleep stages one two three and four and each stage stage is identified by a particular pattern of brain waste and physiological response set so uh okay so before we go to the first stage of sleep we first have the alpha stage now somehow you are relaxed so this is the time where uh just like when you are just watching tv or you're just lying in your bed thinking about something so our brain is on our yeah we are on the alpha stage somehow you are drowsy and your clothes could your eyes could be closed at that time and yet after after the alpha stage we go through the four stages of the end rem sleep so stage one sleep is is a transition from wakefulness to sleep and last one to seven minutes so the first seven minutes of sleep going because you could you could and you're not just drowsy but you are already asleep sometimes we could not even identify if you are already in the stage one or you are just on the alpha stage but then again stage one is this first seven minutes of sleep in it you gradually lose responsiveness to stimuli and experience drifting thoughts and images stage one is marked by the presence of fetal waves which are lower in amplitude and lower in frequency somehow four to seven cycles per second so lower in frequency a lower in amplitude altitude and yet lower in frequency i will show you uh an uh eeg of those different stages of sleep stage to sleep marks the beginning of what we know asleep same subjects who are awakened in stage 2 report having been asleep so when you're awakened and stage 2 you could say that yeah i i just slept so i i had a slip i mean i had i had a sleep yeah so that is for stage two because in stage one you could not even identify that you are already asleep eeg tracing show high frequency bursts of brain activity called slip spindles stage 3 and 4 is somehow the same stage 4 which is which is also called the slow wave or delta sleeve it is characterized by weights of very high amplitude high amplitude and very low frequency less than four cycles per second called the delta weights stage four is often considered the deepest stage of sleep because it is the most difficult from which to be awakened during stage 4 heart rate respiration temperature and blood flow to the brain are reduced and there is a marked secretion of growth hormone which controls levels of metabolism physical growth and brain development so that that's what i have mentioned over uh in our discussion on um on endocrine glands that growth hormone can only be released during the night and specifically it is duri it is during the stage four of our sleep so in rooms in in engram or nine gram sleep our body is somehow relaxed and yet able to move so our body is relaxed and yet we can we can move uh during during this sleep but in rem sleep what's the difference between two is that a real slip makes up the remaining 20 of our sleep time and rem rem brain weights have high frequency and low amplitude and look very similar to beta weights which occur when you are wide awake and unlike so uh better wave is actually the the type of brain wave that you have when you are awake and happy okay so which uh this support when you are awake and alert during rem sleep your body is special logically rough but all your voluntary muscles are paralyzed rem sleep is highly associated with dreaming because this is uh i think there is an explanation on this one physiologically can you just imagine that run soon you are in a rem sleep you are physiologically relaxed it's just that you kind of move your head you cannot move your your body so um literally we are paralyzed during rem sleep during the 20 percent of our time on sleep we are paralyzed why is that so it's because uh as mentioned rem sleep is closely associated with dreaming and dreaming uh that means that our brain is very active while we are dreaming because it has similar to better ways right it's as if that you are awake it's just that your body has to be paralyzed so that you cannot act out your dreams or else you will do so many things while you are dreaming and and your body is very if your body is not paralyzed and you could do many things while you are dreaming you may act out your dreams so uh why it is called rem sleep or the rapid eye movement sleep it's because literally our eyes would move rapidly back and forth behind the closed lid so sometimes we we thought that the person is just it's just pretending to be asleep because of that very busy eyeballs maybe that person is already in that red slit the rapid eye movement sleep so and there is an explanation with regards to banging what are the sleep paralysis so um being said or according to the studies that the wood or slippery paralysis is only in asia so no westerners have suffered that that's the we used to know or the kind of um um sleep that we know of the bang westerners do not have that kind of sickness or distance so why is that so because they believe our scientists believe that um what maybe have you just woke up during rem sleep and it is so uncomfortable and it is so weird for us not be able to move our hands or move our our feet when we are in red sleeping in fact it is just a normal cycle of our sleep it's just that we thought we are in a bamboo mode because we wake up during rem sleep where in our body is paralyzed our muscles our our voluntary muscles are finalized so that's something interesting about sleep and this is how the stages i mean the the brain pattern brainwave patterns when we are on those stages of sleep if you can observe awake stage our our brain is very active very low amplitude and very high in frequency when stage one it started to slow down stage two stage two much more it slows down the activity and the stage four well for the rem tip if you can observe it is very active as well our brain is very active that's why dreaming happens during rem sleep so many subjects have been deprived of rem sleep and dreaming without showing any major behavioral or physiological effects however suppressing rem sleep does produce a curious phenomenon called rem rebound have you and yeah there um although when you rem sleep it's very important for the consolidation of our of of the information that we get all throughout the day if it is actually the time when our brain would try to try to organize the the the knowledge and the facts and the memories that we have gained throughout the day so uh that's why dreaming is of course during this time as a result of those processes that happens inside the organization of of our our of the information that we get throughout the day so uh even if there's no as what i have mentioned earlier that uh many subjects deprived of brain sleep doesn't show any major behavioral or physiological effects it is because of this curious phenomenon we call gram rebound what is ram rebound it refers to individuals spending an increased percentage of time in rem sleep if they were deprived of ram sleep on the previous night so isn't that amazing you see our rem sleep is very important that it has to rebound uh if you would in example tonight you were not able to sleep for the whole night and rem sleep is important right it takes around 20 of our our time our our sleep time so the next day if you are not able to have to have a sleep a night before the next day you would spend 40 percent of um stay of your sleep in the rem sleep in the ram stage so it it would just rebound it it has to pay itself it has to pay to pay for that um for that night where in you were not able to spend rem sleep so this is another uh this is the sleep patterns across lifespan so if we have this rem sleeve example we have brown sleeve on the second one although it's not on the second stage but it's just put in there right after the the awaking state so example when you go through the stages one two three in the first hour of the evening you reach about the fourth fourth stage already and then it goes back this is the the cycle of the sleep it goes back to stage three stage two stage one somehow a brief on rem sleep and then goes through again so stages one two three one two four and then to rem sleep again so that is for the children for young adults somehow it has the same pattern but if you can observe with the elderly elderly people spend little time in rem sleep so they and they have frequent awakenings during the night that is for the earth elderly so researchers concluded that rem sleep helps us store or encode information in memory and advise students to get a good night's sleep so that what they have studied the previous day has a chance to be stored in the brain's memory and that's why crowning is not really that good especially if you if you have to spend the whole night studying before the exam it's because your brain could not uh could not um could not process or or could not uh organize the information that you got so it's very important that before a night before the exam you are relaxed and you can spend time in your rem sleep and and so that your your brain could do the process thing of consolidation of your memories or of the information that you got in in that day or in that on that week or in that month so why do i sleep so there are many theories why we need to sleep one is repair theory so well as the name suggests sleep is necessary for our body to repair itself after a day's work and activities so it is primarily for restorative process literature says that the most important time of the night that you have to be asleep is between 10 p.m to 2 a.m so that's why we have we have a few of 10 p.m because it is very important for young adults like you to be asleep at 10 p.m and wake up maybe even as early as 3 a.m so that you're still able to to reach i mean you still um asleep until 2am those were the time when our body do its restorative process and growth hormone as well as released during these hours during the 10 to 2 a.m now uh so now you would know that you grow to the taller you would grow taller even if your mother if even if you did not obey your mother to take enough during the afternoon hours because growth hormone again will be released during the 10 to 2 a.m so um also so the again the first theory of sleep why we need sleep is because for restorative processes and for repair so if the referee says that sleep is primarily against a restorative process so it's just it would just restore uh the cells that you have uh the dead cells that or the cells that you lose throughout that day so that that's the time that your body would would uh create new cells and also again it is very important to sleep what else another theory is related to evolutionary theory although as christians we don't buy an evolutionary theory but for the sake of discussion so it tells us that for us to be safer and not expose ourselves to dangers we better take our sleep and that is you can see that on it on in many animals right it prevented early humans and animals from wasting energy and exposing themselves to the dangers of nocturnal predators somehow this theory tells us that through experience we adapted to that safe behavior of getting to sleep you know that many accidents and crimes happen during the night however what this theory did not realize is that when we sleep we are more vulnerable to evil intentions of men right so example because we are asleep people might drop us or even kill or even ever murder so what if we don't sleep what will happen to us sleep deprivation affects our body and brain sleep deprivation may compromise our immune system which increases an individual's vulnerability to viral infections and may lead to inflammation-related diseases sleep deprivation puts the body on alert increasing production of stress hormones and elevating blood pressure which are major risk factors for health conditions such as heart disease stroke and cancer so you see if you sleep uh our body would be able to release those i mean our immune system would be active and then we would we would become so stressful when we don't sleep and that's why those stressful hormones those stress hormones can can affect our body in the long run it would have a negative effect on our body in the long run sleep deprivation can deplete the brain's vital energy spores which is the glycogen and interfere with completing fats that require vigilance and concentration if you if you can't observe that when you are sleep deprived you you don't have the the attention that you used to have when when you have good sleep during the night sleep deprivation increases activity of the emotional centers of the brain particularly in response to the negative stimuli leading to irritability so you see sleep is very important what else in sleep deprivation it has effects on the body and effects on the brain although i have already mentioned some of them but sleep deprivation again would compromise our immune system which increases our body or which makes our body vulnerable to some diseases so what else it would so it also in the effects on the brain again it would makes us irritable and and also interfere with our ability to make rational or logical decisions and even um sleep deprivation for a long for in a longer term uh it would induce vivid hallucinations so so a person may experience hallucinations already the theories of dream interpretations so why do we dream and how do we interpret our dreams there are so many many materials nowadays that will tell us or that would give us dream interpretations so there are again theories on why we dream and how can we interpret dreams so first of course it is from freud he believes that a dream is the gateway to our unconsciousness most of what is in our unconscious mind are socially unacceptable such as sex and aggression thus these unconscious desires would come out through our dreams in the form of symbols how freud interprets dreams are sexual in nature so for example you uh there was a man uh whose dream of a stick and then he said that that speaks stands for feminist that means you want them to have sex or even for a woman who who dreams of of um of an open book he was she was reading an open book and then he she i mean freud interpreted us that the book represents vagina that she wants to have sex so that is the kind of interpretation freud would think oh so to protect us from having threatening thoughts the sensor transforms our secret girl-treated anxiety provoking desires into harmless symbols that appear in our dreams and do not disturb our sleep or conscious thoughts so that is how how uh freud interprets our dream another one is the neurocognitive dream theory this is from wilhelm dom hoff he is the proponent of this theory he believes that many brain areas that are after being we are awake remain active during dreaming so when you are hungry as you went to bed you will most likely dream of food thus in contradiction with fry's theory it is not necessary to seek deeper symbolic meaning to understand dreams so it is just as it is no just just interpret as as as simple as that you're just hungry this theory uh theory believes that if this is just an extension of waking life means that our dreams reflect the same thoughts fears concerns problems and emotions that we have when when we awaken i don't know if you have if you have that experience but i do have an experience where before i went to bed i had this math problem that i really could not could not um could not answer and later on i'm not sure if i have dreamed it or whatever but then we when when i avoid wake up the next day i was able to answer that question so if i'm going before i get the flu i was really thinking on that problem how to solve this problem and then the next days i was able to answer that one so that is for and another friend of mine he also got a dream on that problem he was an engineering student and then he just couldn't couldn't answer it but then he dreamed about it it was really vivid in his dream and he knows that he dreamed about the answer unfortunately when he wake up the next day he forgot the dream but he know the feeling that he really dream about the answer unfortunately anyway the third theory of the dream of theory of dream interpretation is the activation synthesis activation synthesis theory which says that dreaming of course because brain areas that provide recent cognitive control during the waking state are shut down so as a result the sleeping brain is stimulated by different chemical and neural influences that result in hallucinations institutions high emotions and desire thought patterns that we call genes so if you uh if you can remember some of your dreams there is so illogical and it's so impossible so it's so unrealistic right and even they are very weird and unrealistic mystery says that dreams are just random outbursts of neurons and chemicals so it doesn't have any any unifying or maybe it doesn't have any purpose at all it is just a random burst of of those uh neurons and chemicals so dreams are just meaningless that is for activation synthesis yuri and the last dream theory is the fat stimulation theory it says that dreaming serves a biological function by repeatedly stimulating events that are threatening in our waking lives so our brain can practice how it perceives that so we can rehearse our response to this event so our ancestors have dreamed about threatening life events and use their dreams to rehearse the skills needed for survival although i could have so much relief on this one i know i'm not sure but i usually do such thing in meditation but then do you ever have an experience that you know that you are dreaming and you know what what you do in your dream although somehow it is somehow related to this one now uh you know that you are just dreaming and you know what to do in that dream and we called it in psychology we call that one as lucid dreaming or l-u-c-i-d lucid l-u-c-i-d lucid dreaming during a lucid dream a person feels as if he or she is fully awake within the dream world and capable of normal thought and action what if something goes wrong during the night you just have to to to do something or yeah if if there's something wrong you know that there's something wrong you in that dream and you know that you're just dreaming you know that you just have to wake up no anyway this is just a dream i i remember a lot of that one when when i when i went to sleep and then farm i have a dream and then i know that i remember myself going to bed and i know that this is just a dream so don't worry and this is just a dream even if it is very threatening and it is very very fearful dream but then since i know that i'm just dreaming so somehow it's okay for me anyway i know this is just actually just a day so i thought i woke up but but that is still part of the thing and that is how they call lucy join me um okay what uh so sleep disturbance says we have sleep talking and sleep walking and sleep soccer and sleep walking usually of course during the stage four of sleep is because again in engineering sleep or number one sleep your body is is relaxed and yet you it is able to move so that's why you can sleep talk and you can please walk this is more common in children and sleepwalking more common in birds although uh they said uh although this is not a a disorder but somehow it doesn't it is a manifestation of stress if the person is sleep walking or sleep talking how about night terrors episodes of fights that occur during stages three or four of them sleep person person may sit up or scream but like we will not recall at the episode in the morning so this night there or that mr it seems like they're dreaming because they see something and they're so afraid but then when you ask them what happened they could not remember what what they have seen or what they have heard that is what they called night terror or that if they were able to shout they're able to wake up and then when you wake them up around ah i i don't know what happened and it's just that he the the child usually happens also for four children the child is very much afraid so you just have to to comfort that child you don't have to interrogate the child what happened or whatever is because he or she could not remember that one that is for night terror so sleep disorders sleep disorders are difficulties falling asleep i mean this insomnia is difficulty falling asleep or remaining asleep or awake or staying asleep or waking up early or waking or there would be numerous awakening so these are this is insomnia so maybe related to stress depression and medication and can be also caused by noise temperature or trying to sleep in a new environment so that is insomnia that means that you ha you either it's hard for you to fall asleep or it's hard for you to remain asleep or it's hard for you to to get back to sleep once you wake up early in the morning or you have frequent breaking news so what do you do when you have insomnia any one of you who have insomnia it is recommended that you have a regular sleeping time so that your biological club would follow that sleeping time so in my case my sleeping time is nine so i should be in my bed before nine or else if i would if i would um if i would not be at bed at night then at 10 80 pm it's hard for me to get to sleep now so don't uh don't read or do any stimulating activities or don't read any stimulating books as it would only activate your brain or even even facebook the blue light they said could awaken your brain and yeah it could affect your melatonin so it is and also because it is stimulating to look on those videos or to look into those those pictures so it's better not to look into stimulating things or stimulating activities or books or or facebook also melatonin which stimulates sleep will be released in the dark so you better turn off your life we have that melatonin the melatonin is it induces sleep and it will only be released during the night and and it would be yeah you could have take you could also take melatonin tablets if you are suffering from insomnia you could do that one as well i i even have one uh one yeah i have one melatonin how do you call this one part of melatonin just in case if i could not have a good night's sleep so another one is apnea a person's star stops breathing momentarily during sleep and usually those people who have apnea the apnea they snore loudly so you would know that the the person stops breathing because there is short silences in between those loud snores and with short silences and loud gasps or snorts may suffer from sleep apnea or yeah so that means they would just stop stop breathing and then they would they would gasp for more air sometimes they are not aware of it but sometimes they would have uh frequent awakenings just to gasp for air so in sleep apnea breathing stops for periods of 20 seconds to two minutes can you just imagine so as the need of oxygen becomes intense the person wakes a little and gobs in air she or he then settles back to sleep this cycle is repeated hundreds of times a night and what causes apnea central sleep apnea of course because the brain stops sending signals to the diaphragm to maintain breathing obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome is a blockage of the upper air passages so for some for central sleep apnea it is it is just because the brain forgets to send messages to the diaphragm to to do the breathing but the obstructive sleep apnea that means there's really something that obstructed your your breathing and another and the last one i think is narcolepsy uh narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder but it runs in families which suggests that it is hereditary so there is no known cure for narcolepsy yet but a variety of drugs help reduce the frequency and intensity of uh of attack so what is this sleep apnea it is a sleep attack so suddenly falling asleep without warning during waking hours narcoleptics often experience loss of muscle tone as well so i just imagine you are just driving that's why it is not good for a narcoleptic person to drive in a car or to do such such a boring task just because they could they may fall asleep and what happened is that that's what i mentioned it's a sleep attack the reason is because uh the person may drop into rem sleep immediately causing hallucination and you know what is rem sleep there is paralyzed or your body is paralyzed so therefore you can you can uh move your body at that time and and can you just imagine you're just driving and then you have the sleep attack wherein your muscles are could not anymore move and all so it is likely caused by central nervous system defects and yet there is no cure yet so now we would go that is for sleep and that is part of the continuum let's go now to the altered states of consciousness we the first one is on hypnosis are you familiar with hypnosis it sounds interesting right so hypnosis it is a real phenomenon it is a real phenomenon it is a procedure in which a researcher clinician or hypnotist suggests that a person will experience changes in sensation perception thoughts feelings or behavior so there is really paramount this is the power of suggestion you can see or whatever the uh you can maybe you can just picture out uh the hypnotist not trying to to have that magnet or a club or whatever you can you can see yourself 10 years ago and you can talk to yourself and also it is characterized by focused attention reduce peripheral awareness and heightened adjustability so that means you are you can i mean people can suggest to you and that means when under hypnosis you feel and do what the hypnotist would want you to feel and do a key element in hypnosis is the basic suggestion effect or the tendency of hypnotized person to carry out suggestion actions suggested actions as if they were involuntary for example um a real experimenter experiment on hypnosis in which the person would just say you would feel excruciating pain whenever you would feel the touch of my finger so even if you would just touch it very lightly the person would really feel the excruciating thing so that is hypnosis or they could even take out the pain even if you feel painful in this part uh you the hypnotist will just tell you now you are you cannot feel the pain and actually they even use this one in hospitals already uh the the uh having having surgery without anesthesia anymore you are just you would just be under the hypnotist control that you would not feel the pain and therefore you don't need anesthesia and that is hypnosis that's the power of suggestion so there are numerous hypnotic responses or experiences of the hypnotized object so these are the hypnotic responses hypnotic analgesia it refers to a reduction of pain so this is what i mentioned a while ago reported by clients after they had undergone hypnosis and received suggestion that reduced their anxiety and promoted relaxation so yeah and they use this one in surgery some some hospitals would use hypnotic suggestions in our hypnotic analgesia during surgery so example of this one is that is ernest hallgard's experiment on hypnotized participants who were told to plunge one hand into a painful bath of ice water so it is full of of ice water and you know that if you are holding an ice water it's really painful right if you kind of hold uh cold water that long it's very painful but participants were told to feel no pain and they said that they felt none so they're under diagnosed notice suggestion that even if they would put their finger on that and that uh buffetful bucket full of ice water they could not feel the pain even if they would stay on that bucket for five minutes or how many means how how long they would want to take their their hands off but then they couldn't feel the pain that is hypnotic analgesia another hypnotic response is control of movement hypnotized subject responds to direct suggestions with involuntary movement so example uh you would say na uh i want you to raise your hand to raise your finger raise your left hand left hand whenever i would say i do so i do then you would just raise your hand even the person is is feeling weird why he would raise his hand up if that person is under the hypnosis so that is control of movement and they would say that there are some people even would commit crime just because they're under the hypnosis they're under hypnosis but i'm not sure with that i haven't i haven't read articles on that one but i've heard some stories on that another one is the post-hypnotic suggestion is given to the subject during hypnosis about performing a particular behavior to a specific queue when the subject comes out of hypnosis so you see even if you are out already of the hypnosis you there could still be post hypnotic suggestions for example the this is a true uh issue event were in a hypnotist because he had this hypnosis session with with one client so he he said that whenever you would see me coming for our session you would close your windows so and that would he would do whenever he would see that if he's coming you would start closing the windows and um and there was even this uh interesting hypnosis that i have seen in youtube it's up to you if you would try to look on that one uh it's it's a video on hypnotizing my sister and then he would uh during hypnosis he told her sister that when you wake up when you get out of this hypnosis you would uh you would talk martian language language martian language and you know what three two one wake up and then when you wake up when she wake up the sister was a father she was saying different language and then the sister was even was even feel weird why she is talking like that and then the brother would just farm he was she was just laughing because because the sister is talking different language now and so he has to to go back to the hypnosis again in account of me you would get to sleep one two would stay true and then the sister would and then he would he would change now now okay when you wake up you would not anymore talk about uh you wouldn't you would use english language now but you forget number seven again you would forget number seven and then one in out of three you would wake up one two three two and then the sister woke up and then they tried to count the fingers can you count my finger one two three four five five six eight nine ten eleven you were you she was even amazed when she had eleven fingers and oh you have eleven are you sure can you tell my fingers as fast and then they do the whole thing uh from the highest i mean in a blackboard market so 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1. so then number seven is missing just because it was suggested that she would forget the number assignment so that is a post-hypnotic suggestion and how about age regression it refers to subjects under hypnosis being being asked to regress or return in time to an earlier stage such as early early childhood so so this this happens especially if you are familiar with with multiple personalities disorder one of the uh therapy that they would use is the hypnosis so example of a movie that i have watched i forget the title but then in that hypnosis he was under i mean uh that woman who forgot something because he had so many many um painful experiences so she had to get back to those faithful experiences were in she could not remember anymore those painful experiences it's just that because of the multiple multiple personalities that she had she are not she's not aware that she had other personalities so she had to meet those personalities so she had to get back to those age where in these personalities came out so in that hypnosis the hypnotist just said uh when you look back when you look at your buffer she was under an imagination she has to to to imagine herself in that white dress and then there are doors behind her behind her then the hypnosis said uh when you look back when you look at the i know when you look back you can see a door you walk you walk in it and then when you walk through that door you would be 10 years younger you can see in there and then he could see now the the happenings when he was 10 years younger and also somehow there is age regression however don't do hypnosis at home although they they said that it is it is scientific or what but it there is spiritual danger in hypnosis god created us with individuality and with a logical mind he never controls us but gives us the freedom of choice it is satan who wants to control us so in relation in relation to this there is a there is a quotation from ellen drew white about hypnosis because uh in her in her time hypnosis came out so according to ellen white it is dangerous for anyone no matter how good a man he is to endeavor to influence another human mind to come under the control of his mind let me tell you that the mind cure is a satanic sign satan is the mastermind who has devised these signs for your soul's sake cut loose from everything of this order every time you put it to the mind of another person ideas concerning this time that you may gain control of his mind you are on state and ground decidedly cooperating with him for your soul's sake break gurus from this snare of enemy because again and again uh it is not our job to to hypnotize others or to put or to control someone someone or a person uh yeah a person we should not let our will under our subject uh subject to another person so as future psychometricians and psychologists never ever tried to hypnotize nor be hypnotized for it is satan's ground so yeah somehow there are many students who are interested in this one but again if this statement's gone don't do it and don't let anyone control you it's because it would be easier for you to be suggested now it is easier for you it is easier for satan to insinuate you when when you would when you would let others control you through this kind of signs okay going back to our discussion we go not to meditation it is a method used to narrow consciousness so that outside stresses fade away so meditation is really for relaxation and this is another again an altered state of consciousness so meditation is for the very purpose of meditation again is relaxation by focusing on one one thing or just making your mind black there are many types of meditation so example of that is the zen meditation by the buddhists wherein they focus their mind to again be the feature of this meditation of this altered state is to focus on one thing so that you could relax your mind so in in zen meditation they focus on a mantra such as wherein they will repeat it again and again i'm not sure if you are familiar with that one with those videos then put his meditation they would say [Music] should they focus on on that mantra or money funny so that's one way where they would relax and they would meditate so it provides heightened awareness tranquility and time of internal reflection however again and again another another type of meditation is the yoga or the breathing exercises etc however again koshan as christians we are not encouraged to take any meditation aside from the prayer singing or reading god's word or even breathing it's okay to breath but um the uh maybe one thing that is different i mean one thing that is you know in the breathing is just you you only focus on your breathing but while while having that breathing exercise you couldn't have meditation by by prayer or by singing god's word because according to education hundred eighty nine point one page hundred eighty nine paragraph five and i don't mind is defense workshop and meditation really makes your mind blank and that's not good it's not good to to have a blank mind or yeah where you don't think of something okay so another altered state of consciousness is the psychoactive drug so what is this psychoactive drug so amy uh any chemicals that can alter one's thoughts perception experiences and even behavior is what we call psychoactive drugs requests active drugs can be misused and abused and these are the manifestations that you are abused or abused so substance use it is just using a substance but it does not yet interfere with a person's life but substance abuse we would know that it is already a substance abusive pattern of drug use that diminishes one's ability to fulfill responsibility example you could not anymore get through through your your everyday activity just because you cannot drink coffee or just because you kind of take on that that um that drug or maybe injection with that drug or smell with that drug so if it already um it already make you i mean it diminishes your ability to fulfill your responsibility may result in repeated use and dangerous situations and may lead to legal difficulties related to drug use so there are five categories of psychoactive drugs we have depressed and stimulant hallucinogens or psychedelics of cases and cannabis so uh before that and the manifestations of of substance abuse is dependence tolerant and withdrawal so you know that someone is being addicted to drug if there is compulsive use of the substance also known as addiction that means that you cannot stop yourself from using it the tolerance is that you need more substances to require to uh to obtain the original effect so before you could only drink one cup of coffee but now you still feel sleepy with that one cup of coffee so you have to take another dose of coffee for you to stay awake so that is already tolerance and the withdrawal one withdrawal withdrawals in symptoms physical discomfort when the substance is is stopped so that means that if you will not use a coffee or today you cannot do your normal activity so you feel discomfort and others for withdrawals such as such as not not using cigarettes for a day it may give them um sweaty hats they would they would they would have fever there would be there would be tremors and also that is withdrawal so again that's what i mentioned there are five groups of uh drugs psychoactive drugs we have depressants from the word itself now it's lost behavior by either speeding up or slowing down nerve impulses so it slows down the central nervous system so effects of depressants are impulsiveness dramatic mood swings desired thoughts suicidal suicidal behaviors large speech to disorientation and etc so somehow it is confusing if alcohol is really depressant knowing that by observation a drunk person could get wild or even go amo if you are familiar with that term as the definition of bonds test depressants depresses or slows down the normal functioning of the central nervous system so if you check the progression of alcohol in the brain the first area if you would shock yeah the progression of alcohol in the brain the first area that that the alcohol would depress is the cerebellum and you know the cerebellum is for is for the coordination of movement and you can see that one for the first one who is under the influence of alcohol you can see that one in his way of walking so in america one way to test drunk drivers is to let them point their nose with their clothes with their closed eyes so if you are not drunk you can easily point that tip of your nose with your closed eye but if you are if you are in an enough uh if you are under the influence of an alcohol then you cannot do that one so because it already depresses the normal functioning of of cerebellum so another one the person also the next one that will be depressed by the alcohol if the cereal broom and the limbic system the person becomes unrealistic and illogical he could not remember what happens that means the hippocampus is already affected when he was drunk and he could express his feelings very freely because the normal ability to control is decreased the last area that would be affected if the person continues to drink alcohol is the medulla and remember what is medulla form and at this point it could be fatal so medulla controls breathing thus if it is depressed because of alcohol it may lead to death so that is an example of this next one is on stimulant substances that inside the central nervous system it includes drugs such as caffeine where your coffee comes from nicotine where cigarettes i mean there are there are nicotine in cigarettes and vitamins where in um the methamphetamine is derived which what we usually call the shabu and then the cocaine so the effects is increased confidence mood elevation sense of energy and alertness decreased appetite anxiety irritability insomnia unchanged and drowsiness so coffee is the most widely used stimulant so again it stimulates no it stimulates your your central nervous system but according to the writings of ellen white stimulus doesn't give us energy it would only somehow somehow each our brain just to make it active but we're just using our supposed to be stored energy so when when emergency comes if we are always taking stimulants there could there be a time when we could not respond uh rightly during emergency situation because we already have have used our stored energy so [Music] you start lowering your dosage and caffeine and as much as possible stop taking consumers allocated genes or psychedelics they are mind-expanding drugs that alter consciousness by producing a temporary loss of contact with reality and changes in emotion perception and thought these changes often include gross distortion and body image loss of identity gym-like fantasies and hallucinations it is similar to the psycho psychotic forms of mental illness because they it really induces hallucinations so they could see something that others could not see they could feel and hear something that others could not hear and feel so the example of that they would have the effects would be fascination with ordinary objects and therefore they could hear colors they could see music uh they have those distortions on depth and and vision slowing time it seems like they are in a slow motion and also that's that's hallucinogens and again uh it can it can damage our employees the next one is the opiates there these are drugs that induce feelings of euphoria feelings of intense happiness well-being and and relaxation but they are more known of their pain-killing activities they diminish physical sensation and the capacity to respond to stimuli by depressing the central nervous system and the most common is the morphine and the heroin which is used in surgeries just for them not to feel the pain so they would uh they are used because of the of their effect which is apathy or the the feelings of euphoria yeah that's really the what makes it very addictive is because of the feeling of of intense happiness so there is decreased physical activity drawing each single formula and nostalgia and lastly i think for the psychoactive drugs is the hanabis this is name of the plant from which the psychoactive drug marijuana is is produced the marijuana high characterized by general euphoria again uh or intense happiness a sense of well-being and relaxation however not all marijuana experiences are pleasant a number of users report anxiety fearfulness confusion and irritability uh distortion of time and space and even depression frequencies of marijuana disrupt memory function and learning yeah it's because actually many people many students would use marijuana just for them to to understand and could grasp or even memorize the the the lessons no i i had a patient when i was doing my ogp in a in a rehabilitation center that patient was using cannabis on the marijuana marijuana actually the dried leaves of the flowers on the hanabis plant and then he was using marijuana because he was he was studying in nursing and he is already a father so he has to work in the morning and he has to study during the night and he was studying nursing so nursing obviously have so many things to memorize so he uses cannabis so he uses marijuana but you know what happened uh he got addicted to marijuana and somehow his memory has been has been already affected so because uh he said nah when you take marijuana it seems like your brain is like a sponge you can memorize everything that you can read so that's why he uses marijuana for his studying but it affects him already because he's already affected his memories and lastly another alternate uh outer state of consciousness is the five phenomena collectively paranormal events and or faculties these are events that defy the laws that control the physical world and are thus attributed to the powers of the mind so we siphon them in our esp is under esp is the extra sensory perception or what we usually call the sixth sense so if it consists of perception that's mediated by sense organ stimulation and information is acquired in ways that do not involve stimulation of file sensors so this esp we have different kinds of esp but then um when i try to to look into into articles they could not yet have a scientific explanation of esp so we don't know i think and i believe this is really on the dark magic or dark forces or the evil evil spirits so we could not we could not explain the scientifically yeah so there are we have three kinds of esp the telepathy or the ability to communicate or read others minds without the use of the known sentence that means that you can read what the person is trying to say and there are some people who believe that they have this this ability clairvoyance is the ability to see things without the use of of the eyes clear oh yeah so i know telepathy sorry again yeah they couldn't telepathy and clairvoyance so favorites i mean if you close your eyes you can still see what the person is is is letting you read example you you would let the person read what card is that one if that person have surprised absolutely even if he closes his eyes even if you put something covered on his eyes you could still see what that card is recognition is the ability to predict future events so that is where um those psychokines i mean those those um the prophets and all have that kind of esp and lastly psychokinesis uh it is not part of the extra sensory perception but some of it is still a an ability that we don't know what the what causes that one it could be dark magic so psychokinesis is the ability to move things without the use of physical interaction so you see we have so many kinds of other outer state of consciousness but let us always remember that we have to follow what god says we should not we should not go through those to those altered state of consciousness wherein it is not god's a psycho including the psychoactive grossity if it is not uh if it is not good for your health if it is not even recommended for you then don't use that one hypnosis uh we should not do that one meditation we should do it in a christian way you know and also i hope you got a lot of things in this chapter and um may may maybe have that full awareness of ourselves as well so and also again we must be conscious in everything and we have to follow what god wants us to do that's all and god bless