Documentary Ireland the IRA support Nazi Germany and the holocaust

this man was responsible for the death of up to a million people in Nazi controlled Croatia it was one of the worst atrocities of the ethnic cleansing in World War two his name and rayappa to Kovac Nazi Minister of the Interior in Croatia he arrived in Ireland in July 1947 in July 1944 this man commanded an SS unit responsible for some of the bloodiest actions of the German occupation and France his name Sarah Stanley a commander of the Breton SS militia he arrived in Ireland in December 1947 this man murdered hundreds of Jews in wartime Poland often burying his victims alive even today no Jew lives in the villages he visited his name Peter mentleman SS Schaffer he arrived in Ireland in February 1963 in 1945 as a naive 16 year old I joined the Royal Air Force and was sent to Burma at the end of the war against the Japanese on leave in Ireland we couldn't wear our uniform because of our neutrality something that irritates me still [Music] when I returned home from the Royal Air Force in 1947 people who were part of the Nazi terror were being allowed into Ireland former collaborators and Nazis some of whom were actually involved in the Holocaust were seeking asylum in Ireland and official Island seemed to give a greater welcome to Nazis and former collaborators than they did to returning War veterans come with me then on my travels as I tried to find out who these Nazis we're where they came from and how they got into our [Music] Hrothgar and Dublin is a strange place to begin my hum pronounces but in 1947 this quiet leafy suburb became the hideaway of the man responsible for the death of up to a million people in wartime Croatia and Ray are two college in Los Angeles in 1985 our two kovitch now a frail old man was extradited from the United States to Yugoslavia for war crimes over the course of his extradition it was discovered that Ireland had provided him a safe haven as he fled from allied justice Vukovich was one of the architects of the Holocaust he belonged to a Nazi regime which began the final solution in Croatia even before the Germans began the slaughter of Jews it was to reach an apex of genocide in places like Auschwitz [Music] I have come to Croatia to learn about his crimes [Music] when the Germans are around Yugoslavia in 1941 they established a puppet state in Croatia for their pre-war allies news - a party the ax stachebro right-wing Catholic group which ruled the Nazi backed independent state of Croatia between 1941 and 1945 this dashing movement was an extreme right-wing national emergency universities are grabbed in the 1930s and its basic ideology was that it believes in a greater Croatia which be independent from Yugoslavia and would be cleansed of all racial minorities and the gypsies Jews and especially Serbs Arthur Kovich was the Minister of the Interior and he was really in charge of all the internal affairs of the state he's very very prominent for example in the instigation of the Holocaust in Croatia in February 1942 and when the stache' opened their parliament he gave one of the maiden speeches he actually said that the Croatian regime was going to deal more ruthlessly with the Jews and the Germans had he referred to the Jews as parasites who were living off the blood of the honest Croatian worker and the honest Croatian peasant and this is really the signal that the Holocaust is going to start we know our two kovitch was a deeply religious man while in Ireland he attended Mass daily at the Church of the three patrons in life God for our two kovitch and the Eustache er their Catholicism was bound up in the fabric of their movement most them were Catholics many of them had been to seminary stores as well they really tried to portray themselves as true Catholics and for example they make abortion punishable by death both for the doctor and a woman seeking the abortion drunkenness is banned swearing is punishable by a fine or interment in a camp and of course the Catholic papers love this I think this is brilliant even when no such agreement decided that they want to convert Serbs to Catholicism again this is st. which the Catholic Church is very sympathetic to that suddenly feels true Catholic values are coming back to Croatia and everything's going to be so much better the estar set about creating their racially pure Catholic state to do this they look for the support of the Catholic Church [Music] one of the most infamous clerical supporters of the is dashes was the Archbishop of Sarajevo even cherish and he really kind of endorses the Holocaust he says you know sometimes you have to use tough measures against people and there are limits to God's love which is really saying actually it will be okay to kill all the Jews it won't matter this support from the Catholic Church would later help our toga which get into Ireland as he escaped justice for his crimes 1942 such thoughts were far from our to covet his mind as he said about cleansing the Croatian state [Music] in Zagreb I meet historian Ivo Goldstein and expert on the Holocaust installation so either what would two cavities role have been in the terror well he was one of the promoters of the system of terror he as Minister of the Interior he signed the racial laws he was in the organization of the concentration camps the system was orientated versus the serbs the jews the Roma population and all those frauds who were regarded as the real or possible threats to the regime the main concentration camp in Croatia was for the year sauna baths concentration camp now this wasn't one camp this is the complex of many different camps it wasn't just Serbs in these camps also Jews Gypsies communists and anyone who really opposed the Eustache regime the prisoners were taken out to work did really work that would kill them hard labour really wouldn't qualify what it was they lived on starvation rations many of the prisoners just collapsed and died and the stashes also tried to poison a large number of prisoners and you know it was a daily occurrence that prisoners will be made to line up and they would be taken out and someone be selected and they would just be shot on the spot one of the unique and horrible things that you start treatment does is actually establishes concentration camps specifically for children and it tries to poison the children in these camps and that's one of their main methods of actually killing people is just starving and poison them to death I think it's really important to understand that you stash a method of slaughter in your town of apps I was not methodical it was not very efficient and there's a really strong element of sadism and torture to it it wasn't just actually killing someone it was rat posing for photographs torturing them psychological damage and there's so many infamous stories and in this one story and where a father was made to actually and kill his own son and then bury him before he too is executed and these stories are very common the horrific crimes of the Ustasha turned the Croatian people against the regime many joined marshal Tito's communist partisan arm Slavko goldstein fought with the resistance he witnessed the brutality of the Australia at first hand there was a Orthodox Church near the area where my unit operated and in this church they burned about some say 80 between 80 and hundred and fifty people burned alive and we indirectly found some traces such things peas and so probably so he knew what happened of course the Polka which was responsible he was one of the people who organized the basis for all the tea directly he was not in charge of the concentration game but of the collecting the people for the consultation them he signed some orders in principle you have to send sorted such groups of people to the astronauts the ocelots was a dead end between 80,000 and ninety thousand thousand elder enough about in May 1945 communist partisans overthrew the estatua regime and the leaders fled Croatia to Kovich fled to Salzburg in Austria where he was captured by the British immediately Tito's communist government requested his extradition for war crimes in spite of the evidence of his crimes outer courage was released from military custody in 1946 someone we don't know who was looking out for his interests he fled from Austria and went to Switzerland where he stayed for a brief time before the Swiss recognized him and ordered a note he then made contact with his wartime cosmic connections who came to his rescue [Music] to get into Ireland actually bitch made contact with a Croatian Francisco Monsignor Khurana Slav draganovic a man who had many NAVSEA flee the continent [Music] for vanovech supplied him with false papers and put him in touch with the franciscan church at Freiburg in Switzerland who recommended our to kovitch to the Irish consulate in Baron having secured Irish papers our two kovitch and his family arrived in Ireland in July 1947 obviously from his point of view is a Catholic country so there's a connection there I was I think Ireland had a reputation if not for being sympathetic to Nazis and then for being very unsympathetic communism and so he thought he might find a receptive climate and I guess at that time Island must have seemed like quite a quiet place someone where you could just hide your surf for a few years lie low until you decided what you were going to be able to do little is known about her two curvatures time and Ireland he kept a low profile and didn't draw attention to himself here in the quiet Dublin suburb of Hrothgar either Kovich and his family lived he under the assumed name of a Lewis Anik safe he felt from allied vengeance and prosecution and I think it's strange that a man responsible for maybe a million deaths could live quietly here nobody asking who he was or how we got here I have discovered there is a file on this man and the Department of Foreign Affairs but the Irish government have refused my request to release on the 15th of July 1948 average secured an Irish identity card our two Kovich immediately left for the United States he settled in California where he worked as a bookkeeper still living under the assumed name of alloys anak in the 1950s he was exposed as a war criminal and the Yugoslav authorities demanded his extradition from America it would take nearly 30 years of legal wrangling before he was finally extradited back to Yugoslavia where he was sentenced to death for his crimes our two kovitch would never face the executioner he died in prison in 1988 to understand how Ireland could harbour a monster like our two kovitch I need to go back to wartime Ireland and the country's relationship with the Allies just 20 years after the war of independence many in Ireland found it difficult to lend their support to the British even though they were fighting a totalitarian regime like the Nazis while many Irishmen and women like me went to fight with the Allies the Irish government kept the country out of the war Ireland declared neutrality in September 1939 de Valera had well in advance of this indicated that neutrality was the only option for an independent Irish state if Britain went to war against Germany again it's a classic expression of absolute sovereignty by an independent state that what goes on elsewhere is not really of concern to this state unless it affects the state if it doesn't then it's of no consequence Irish neutrality was certainly Pro allied de Valera himself described it as a friendly neutrality and Ireland's position in the war has been described as unneutered New Zealand's relationship with the United States was not terribly good the US representative in Ireland David Gray did not get along with de Valera at all and David Gray was very determined to have the Irish hand over Irish ports for the use of Allied navies and also was determined to have the Irish come into the war on the Allied side and he very much believed that the Irish position was jeopardizing the Allied war effort by the end of the war relations between the Americans and the Irish had deteriorated rapidly and it was purely a former set of relations and indeed it might be said that the Irish government was prepared to obstruct any suggestion coming from the American government in particular in spite of Ireland's Pro allied stamps the Americans were afraid that Ireland would become a refuge or a haven for Nazi war criminals and here in the Irish National Archives I've found a note written in 1944 by the US ambassador David gray to Eamon de Valera and in if grey is demanding that Ireland refuse entry to any Nazi war criminals who sought refuge in Ireland though Eamon de Valera this was Americans tampering with Irish sovereignty de Valera because he'd been telling us on that very issue of a son would obviously then ensure that post-war asylum policy would be filling the hands of the Irish government that would not be dictated to by other powers the Irish bomb was never prepared to give an unqualified position to the Allies saying we will not know former German military personnel or others into Ireland de Valera and a significant body of opinion in Ireland particulars opinion believe that Nuremberg was illegitimate and they believed it was a Victor's piece and Victor's trial and they effectively believed that those who were executed were murdered in the same way as Irish Nationals had been judicially executed in the 19th century they're quite explicit about that de Valera was not prepared to entertain as far as I can see the extraordinary nature of the Nazi regime he saw the Nazi regime as a regime like any other as a naturist regime representing the German people to a large extent he was well aware of the extermination of the Jews he was well aware of the behavior of the Nazis in the course of the Second World War and he was aware of this well before the end of the war it doesn't make him pro-nazi but what it does make devil heir I think is rather narrow in his folks what I think you do have in Ireland at the very least is a skepticism about the right of the Allies to accuse anybody have been a war criminal so that's that at least opens the possibility and the prospect if somebody actually did arrive in Ireland that the Irish government certainly not arrest them and expel them from the country the Irish response Beth of the Allies and I quote from the file era would deny admission to all Aryans whose presence would be detrimental to the interests of the Irish people in other words the Irish government was nicely fudging the issue and the word was out that in Ireland you had the chance to escape allied justice sixty years on it seems inconceivable that Ireland could become a haven for war criminals but that's exactly what happened but it will not be Germans who took advantage of this but an SS militia inspired by the IRA [Music] Brittany has always been a place that saw itself as different from the rest of France the province was split between those who were pro French and bred on nationalists from Germany over and France in 1940 they found that some breadth of nationalists were willing to collaborate in 1943 opposition to the Nazis was growing the Germans needed local help to defeat the resistance they found it in a local right-wing militia called the Bears on parrot founded by an extreme Brethren nationalist called celesta Lani Silla Stanley was born in 1908 in North in Brittany from an early age he identified very strongly as a Breton and not as a Frenchman so he became involved in Brett on nationalist politics and very much was influenced by the Irish model of the IRA of physical force nationalism that is adopting an uncompromising violent opposition to French rule in Britain many breslin nationalists in varying degrees had advocated some sort of collaboration with the Germans in order to secure press on independence so busy in Paris was the extreme militant wing of that tendency a fighting force that was purely brittle in action against friends and because it took that role it ended up essentially being used as an auxiliary force by the Germans to root out resistance fighters city's terminating a shelf of a contested abysm there was a weekend ago spiritism or saradomin the sillustani to leave um the Reformation important to Shannon Lee from the city says engines of its era police business mmm Lucerne we need a mediator album composed a exquisite month francais asset for that you confer dot Frances or a soldier Falls la misión Solara solution the resistor - le Marquis and fitfully resolution yada dossier govt was a shield you dislocate a peg a team of reserve team or a fighter demand reform a super hot alternative to hurl a resistor [Music] you services the monocle public museum but our imagery I Jesus account at you is there a took the paper and attach model there must be a girl more the central arm what if she said the Gestapo Indies and Imam deformation parent if it amounted a logically all connected isn't only Salman more rave party people see the city girl or talk to you there is historically some Tarantino Ovidius tourism astronomy they register phenomena dollars for regular basic symmetry see a coupon [Music] here in these woods outside the village of Roussel is the field of martyrs in it the mass graves of 34 men and women tortured and executed on the instructions of the Nazis by the best armed pirat under the leadership of Salas Thailand [Music] [Music] among those buried here is marae Chrysostom aged 20 years she was executed on the 14th of July 1944 Bastille Day [Music] this was no isolated incident there are mass graves like this all over Britain I [Music] went to meet Desiree Camus a resistance leader his unit fought against the DES arm pellet in Brittany and suffered heavily their hands the militia and de la formación the Pisan pellet comedy Palestine and Lindy so today we toss a sector a on the Mahdi who take the film with a magic Apollo on bottom here be a civil resolvable educate with such a film a Sumatran elephant or diesel do some open are they not what do you ask a cake and pavilion we knew he said I don't kill the one if I only obey only if somebody a vehicle she's color what you as I restore needs to see it is he a little tree that's okay well this one as the head of the disarm para cellar style and I may not have pulled the trigger he may not have tortured anyone but he was the mastermind behind their actions [Music] in 1944 as the Allies liberated Brittany many Breton collaborators implicated in the crimes of the Nazis fled France among them were Seles Thailand and the most loyal followers from his SS militia the best on peril it was a journey that would take them all the way to Ireland if really people pommy circus Africa song Siva Vienna France in App Engine or additional Khomeini come granddaughter [Music] Pakistan love me how fans don't still la Stella free territory parlay arezzo buddy memorize Ocala visualize a circus or no hospitals of our hate a tower para police the sector not who eventually did doctor emo they let the net for HP HP on Agra the hokum of the new opera construed another puppy poor approving CA or poorly on their home in 1947 Warren Richland a that he could escape to Ireland the first breath of nationalists who had arrived in Ireland after the liberation of France reported that the Irish government was prepared to grant them asylum the former head of the press on nationalist party Raymond teleport reportedly had an interview with devil era in which de Valera advised him to continue using the alias with which he'd entered Ireland so that then if the French asked de Valera is this man in the country de Valera could truthfully answer no Silla Stanley Nate by that time phone is never enough and an associate came from Germany crossed into France and were at Paris where they then obtained false ID cards that enabled them to travel to Britain and eventually to Wales never enough and other members of the busy impaired us who came via this route entered Ireland that way vanna kept a low profile in ireland but he did associate with other bretons jean-pierre the mouth and breath an anarchist who lived in Ireland in the 1970s as one of the few people who got close to him what I know is that they were welcome that they were not helped when I met him he was living very poorly first in kulak near Dublin and after that I met him in Oran more near Galway well it could have been my master and he was opposite in the idea he was a friend of the laddie I was an artist so we can have been enemies I believe that we were between the two weak it was for me not the master let alone me but something between the two large time and Ireland went largely unnoticed few people got to know he died in Dublin in 1983 living in earth created the peasant parrot one everybody was sure German and he wanted to leave something unforgettable for the Breton's for the French and the best way to leave something unforgettable is to leave something unforgivable for the French that's why I created the design part [Music] as the Allies pushed through the Nazi territories they stumbled across one of the most shocking examples of man's inhumanity to man [Music] the Allied soldiers who liberated the concentration camps were always appalled by what they saw some of them indeed were traumatized for months some for years afterwards and I have to say that going through these camps today one is still filled with that awful sense of foreboding across Europe the Red Cross struggled to find temporary homes for the many victims of the concentration cuts Ireland was asked to help this request exposed a latent anti-semitism within Irish society [Music] Ireland discriminate against Jews before during and after the Holocaust during the 1930s Jews were discriminated against in how they made applications for refugee status during the war prevalent anti-semitism an Irish society made it difficult for the government that his de Valera to move foregrip plans to help Jewish children from Vichy France after the war after semitism remained efficient in the sense there was laid out in government memos by the end of the war what we can see is that there was a reasonably widespread view in government that a liberal policy towards Jews would not be taken immigration was opposed in particular by the Department of Justice and by the Department of Industry and Commerce it was believed that Ireland was a Catholic country which had strong antipathy to Jews but there was also a very strong view held quite widely the Jews didn't fit in that they were different that they were exploitative that they