History of China


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hello everyone and welcome back to my channel this is the second part of my Chen long video so I strongly recommend watching part one first if you haven't already to catch up with the timeline links in the description below thanks for watching and I hope you enjoy 17:59 the now 48 year old emperor general has been the leader of that single st for nearly 25 years under his rule the population has grown immensely from about 350 million to near 450 million people and China has integrated that hunger carnate now known as sin Jang in its territory tightening the dynasty's control over the border regions has led to tensions of the kingdom of Burma after the Shan States small kingdoms on the Chinese influence were invaded by the Burmese they sought Chen Long's help Anna quested intervention the Qing originally wished to secure control over the Shan States while supporting their resistance but the conflict with Burma would escalate over the next year's an occasion to attack the Bernese come bang dynasty would emerge in 1765 when the local 20,000 strong Burmese army stationed in the state of Contin left for war with the kingdom of Siam the Ching army counting around 3.5 thousand men led by General Yan Seoul and its local Shan allies took the occasion to besiege the City of Canton the experienced Burmese garrison was however able to overturn the siege and that Singh forces had to retreat the odds all fearing the consequences of his failure concealed the outcome of his campaign to the court claiming all was going well Shen long was however suspicious he therefore recalled your toll who decided to commit suicide rather than face Imperial punishment this deeply frustrated Chen lung and the Emperor decided to start investing heavily in this conflict the war with Burma became a priority Chen LAN appointed a new official Yang Ming Zhu a veteran of border conflicts he had served in the jungle rebellions and was now ordered to deal with the Burmese issue the ambitious young aimed not just to defeat the Burmese Kingdom in battle and reclaimed the Shan States but conquer all of the nation and place of puppets on its throne he devised the plan to capture the strategic town of Burma and then sailed down the Irrawaddy River to capture over the capital the Burmese whose forces were mainly already fighting another enemy in Siam however discovered Yang's plan and set a trap to counter the numerical inferiority they decided to abandon Tamil and organize a staunch defense on the next city count on their defenses included captured modern French guns from French warships there were also a few French sailors in the Burmese army the Ching army fell for the trap losing great numbers of men at the base of the world of Canton its soldiers were further decimated by illness probably malaria drastically weakened the remaining Qing forces were no match against the Burmese counter-attack and were crushed like his predecessor young in July Dinh his report of the Emperor claiming territory was being captured and the local population was starting to accept King Authority and the Burmese were asking for peace not easily duped Chen long did not believe young yangju's report the general was recalled to Beijing and ordered to commit suicide the situation had now completely changed indeed the Ching dynasty risks being humiliated by what was a tiny state in comparison since neither the indigenous border Shan people nor the Chinese green standard army proved effective against the Burmese the Emperor judged it was time for a more capable army to be mobilized the Manchu forces who me saw a superior were called to duty waging a full-scale war with Burma Shenlong dispatched his own son-in-law mean Rey leading a fifty thousand strong army of Manchu and Mongol bannermen strengthened by green standard soldiers and allied militias as reinforcements to deal with Burma the invasion began in November 1767 this time the campaign started well for the team who could secure several small towns and defeat the twice smaller Burmese me at goat a gorge with 30,000 men mean gray march towards Alva reaching single by early 1768 the Ching were confident in their soon-to-be victory over Burma so much so that Chan long began making plans on how to administer what was to be new team territory for the Burmese morale was wavering the Qing employer learning that the Chinese army was only about 30 miles away stayed calm he decided neither to flee nor fortified the capital her father but mobilizes men towards single in a counter-attack much against the advice of his officials meanwhile meand Roy had over stretched his frontline undersupplied and isolated he shipped it to a defensive stance slowly the Burmese secured land around single as disease spread once more in their Ching raps mean ray abandoned his objective an ordered full retreat from Burma back to Yunnan province on the way back he and his men were crushingly defeated in March 1768 at the Battle of memmio from the thousand strong army only a few dozen Manchu soldiers managed to escape that disastrous battle symbolically Ming hue cut his cue and ordered the survivors to take it to the Emperor as a token of loyalty being gray then hanged himself on a tree news of the disastrous campaign finally reached the unsuspecting general he was nearly ready to begin integrating Burma into the Ching sphere when he learnt that his army had been entirely crushed the Emperor was severely shocked although the three Burma campaigns had gone terribly giving up was added a question for Chen LAN taking the issue even more seriously than before he organised top personnel for a final campaign for hung his brother-in-law who had completed the first jimtran campaign back in 1740 ninth and also ten Long's most trusted advisor and a grand councilor was appointed as leader alongside the best Manchu generals the Burmese expecting a final showdown had recalled all their armies from Siam that were now at the ready for Hong leading 60,000 soldiers carefully planned out his campaign studying from previous mistakes in 1769 all preparations had been made and the fourth invasion began however over the next few weeks to the disbelief of the commanding officers every action failed one after the other in addition the Chinese were once again stricken by disease after months of disastrous expedition the remnants of the original force found themselves completely encircled while some Burmese officials wanted to annihilate that Shing army more sensible ones realized this would lead to yet another invasion from their neighbor consequently the king of Burma decided to organize talks of the shattered Qing force the terms of the negotiations stated that the Chinese forces would have to withdraw from Burma forever and abandon all claims on most of the Shan States prisoners of war would be released and diplomatic relations between both nations would resume in December 1769 the truce was signed ending the sino Burmese war it had been a complete failure for China claiming over 70,000 men with no territorial games Chen LAN was most dissatisfied but there was nothing left to do he decided to consider the truce as an act of submission by the Burmese and claimed victory but effectively the Burmese had won the conflict the sino Burmese war was counted as the fifth grade campaign although it had cost the Treasury great sums of money the Ching Empire was still very rich to celebrate Chen Long's upcoming 60th birthday an imperial edict exempted the whole Empire of land tax for the year 1774 the same occasion the Emperor ordered the construction of a Tibetan Buddhist temple complex based of the Potala Palace in Lhasa this building was the port wards Hong Kong - ramat of Chong dock the city hosting the Imperial hunting grounds he would later often meet in voice from all corners of the Empire in this temple Jen long however realized that he was aging out of filial piety he did not want to rule any longer than his grandfather Kangxi therefore he began making preparations for his retirement or during the construction of the palace of tranquil longevity better known as the chin long Gardens in 1771 but there was still five more military campaigns that would be conducted to complete the ten great campaigns as they had done so 20 years before the Jin Chuang tribes in southwest China rebelled once more in 1771 slogged pon the leader of the first rebellion had been dead for ten years his nephew Lancashire had taken over as a Tulsa will tribal chieftain and prepared his own uprising aiming to unite the Jin Chuang tribes and become king he began a long propaganda stirring anti Ching sentiments to gain support soon many Jin Chuang tribes followed his movement Lancashire then died and his son sung a son took the reins of the Jean chuan Alliance when the new tall sir began attacking protesting tribes in 1771 Chen long learnt the news and ordered the second Jin 20 came to pacify the region this new conflict would force the Ching dynasty into a long war of attrition as once again the rebel tribes had expertly prepared their uprising and defenses after the governor of search one province led six months of unsuccessful expedition Shen long replaced him with several successive generals they were however uncoordinated refusing to reinforce each other the emperor had some executed and replaced by smarter soldier general our Kwai nicknamed the iron general an officer that had served on the full hung in Burma was appointed to crush the uprising after several years of the war going nowhere they'd seen court-ordered heavy cannons to be sent to the army in Jin Chuang after a betrayal took place within the jinhwan racks the campaign was finally over in 1776 after six costly years that had depleted the Treasury to ensure no further rebellions would arise Shenlong reorganized the tribal chieftains system with Crassus Asian and executed many locals he then organized the repopulation of the area where Singh loyalist people's and began a nationwide strict control over minorities the situation was now very different than several years ago that seeing Treasury was vastly depleted by the costly wars in Burma and jin hwan to replenish it shen long began raising taxes everywhere which was not well-received although the dynasty controlled china with strong monitoring many anti ching secret societies called way formed or grew these either thought the Manchu Empire out of Han Chinese nationalism religious ideology or ming dynasty loyalism one of them the white lotus society would organize an uprising in Shandong Province it's local leader Wang Yun a martial arts master and physician incited the local population to rebelled in 1774 rallied under the battlecry or a wide utrom meaning excessive taxes they managed to capture three cities before they were crushed by the green standard army shen long was now old and started growing reckless about the officials around him in 1776 he took a liking to a young man Chu official caution ensuring his social ascension portion would actually become the most corrupted official in all of Chinese history owning at his depth over 1.3 billion taels of silver equivalent to the Empire's combined revenue over 15 years a new event would shake the aging emperor in 1777 his mother the Empress Dowager died consequently Shin long temporarily switched to a vegetarian diets and resided in a grass hut as was the custom in mourning an imperial edict further enforced the wearing of mourning clothes within the population for a hundred days that same year in 1777 strengthening China's control and trade importation of cotton was banned in the trading City of Canton the strict Canton system became a problem for the UK that desperately needed trading profits the prelude to the opium wars incidentally seven years later as the nation of the United States had recently been founded the first American trading vessel to the Ching dynasty the Empress of China would dock at Canton and commenced trade Chen Long's great grandfather Emperor Chandra had invited in 1649 the fifth Dalai Lama to Beijing in a diplomatic and political event in a similar fashion on the occasion of his own 70th birthday in 1778 Chen long invited the sixth Panchen Lama to the capital panchen lamas were the second most important figure in Tibetan Buddhism after the Dalai Lama for the occasion the Emperor ordered the construction of the shoe me for temple mixing Chinese and Tibetan architecture the Panchen Lama however contracted smallpox and died in Beijing shortly after arriving in 1780 secret societies like the White Lotus who had rebelled in Shandong a few years earlier would continue to be a problem for the Ching dynasty on the island of Taiwan another one of these emerged the TNT away or heaven an erv society that still exists today with over 300,000 members worldwide was growing by the day and prepared an uprising [Music] haunting sway governor of Taiwan discovered the TNT ways activities and immediately began organizing their suppression in 1786 the local chink forces however struggled against the determined insurgents their leader Lynch Juan Juan proclaimed himself King and in a few days over 50,000 rebels to control of a large part of the island Taiwan was both a strategic in symbolic region for the Ching who could not afford to lose it Chen long dispatched reinforcements but they rapidly found themselves in difficult position shifting into a defensive strategy the Emperor had to dispatch another army of 20,000 elite troops on the general fukken the Sun of fool hyung who had committed suicide in the Burma campaigns this time fukken was able to crush the rebellion capture his leader and restore order to Taiwan by 1788 this overseas pacifying expedition was branded as the seventh grade campaign there was no intermission of peace after the Taiwan events military tension was immediately shifted back to Tibet for the first time the problem was not internal to the region but an exterior aggression the recently unified Hindu kingdom of Nepal had lately emerged as a strong political and military state because of trade inequalities between Nepal and Tibet harassment of Nepalese merchants by the Tibetans and religious differences tensions sparked between both entities driven to take action in the face of these in Justices the kingdom of Nepal marched 10,000 Gurkha soldiers into Tibet on suspecting this invasion the Tibetan forces were crushed almost immediately to deal with this new invasion of his protectorate of Tibet general ordered the general to lead 10,000 men to counter the Nepalese Gurkhas upon arriving a Ching general however learnt that the situation had changed thanks to the efforts of religious figures peace talks were already about to take place he therefore decided not to act in the peace treaty that was negotiated to it was held accountable for the conflict the mountainous nation was forced to pay reparations of war to the Nepalese Kingdom as well as an annual tribute in exchange for the re-establishment of the pre-war borders and withdrawal of Gurkha soldiers there would be no rest for the Teen Court as it had also engaged in another conflict elsewhere in parallel to the first campaigns against the Gurkhas counted as the eighth great campaign Shenlong decided to take action in Vietnam Chinese meddling with the region was not new dating back to the Han Dynasty but it was the first time that that seemed honest eerily interactive there a raging civil war between the northern and southern Vietnamese states was ongoing in 1788 northern Vietnamese Emperor lazier tongue had been overwhelmed by his southern enemy young hair he fled that same year the Guangxi province to ask for the team's help general seeing an opportunity to gain a puppets and influence his southern neighbor agreed to intervene offering him the support of the massive 200,000 strong yang guang army led by general soldier yi the Chinese invasion began in November 1788 thanks to the support of this huge force Emperor easily reestablished himself as leader in the tonkin region but the population grew increasingly hostile to his cruel repression his opponent in her much more popular proclaimed himself Emperor turn declaring the end of his enemy lers dynasty and was able to raise an army of a hundred thousand soldiers but to truly control Vietnam he had to defeat the Qin army twice the size of his early in 1789 Qin commanding generals son Xu Yi based with his army in Tongyeong modern-day Hanoi made plans to celebrate the Chinese New Year and then pursued a campaign south counting on the fact that the Vietnamese new year was held the same day new a new era had however cunningly delayed his celebrations taking advantage over the unprepared Chinese soldiers celebrating the holiday he was able to surprise them at their main base and decisively defeat them so sri and his remaining men escaped back to China alongside the once again deposed Emperor later on during the attack the Vietnamese found campaign plans that suggested that Shindong would want to conquer all of yet Nam so they began making preparations for diplomatic talks meanwhile chin Nam was outraged that song he had been routed by an army half the size of his own he replaced him with Fukuyama the Manchu general much like his Vietnamese opponent believed that diplomacy was indeed the best course of action in the situation with Phu commands help me on hair was able to organise talks with general in exchange for a lasting peace the Vietnamese leader agreed to pay regular tribute to China Shen Nong would an exchange recognized in un dynasty as legitimate ruler of the land yen here nonetheless stayed resentful until his death and agreed to host and helped many anti Ching societies such as the White Lotus and tnd way as well as many Chinese pirates this several months long expedition counted as the ninth great campaign the ultimate one would be organized soon after back in the Himalayas a recent conflict was revived after only one year of Tibet's annual tribute to the kingdom of Nepal in accordance with the peace treaty side in 1789 the Tibetans refused to keep paying subsequently the 20,000 strong Nepalese Gurkha armies returned to the Tibetan Plateau in 1791 once again Shen long decided to intervene and dispatch fool Kang and leading 70,000 soldiers the conflict had shifted from a Tibetan appellees war to a full-scale ciner Nepalese war since the Nepalese army was about four times smaller it cunningly developed its strategy to outmaneuver the team who risked her overstretched their front line conflict would last for a few months but since Nepal would enter warn and of a front in the West and since the Ching army was facing difficult resistance both size grew eager to negotiate peace fukken sent an envoy to the Nepalese King and talks were organized soon after the terms of the subsequent treaty forced Tibet to pay war reparations again and compensate the aggrieved Nepalese merchants and in exchange Nepal would become a tributary state to the Ching empire the ching authorities would also have to mediate and settle any commercial dispute between Tibet and Nepal in the future with this peace treaty the completion of the ten great campaigns was achieved Shenlong compiled them under the name of Meritus valor of the ten campaigns half of the campaigns had in reality been disastrous for the Ching dynasty in terms of human lives resources and prestige nonetheless the borders of the Empire had been consolidated and the sphere of influence of China had grown besides the military Jen long had been organizing a great cultural censorship since 1772 he ordered for all books poems or plays written by Ming loyalists to be purged branding them as evil works any other literary pieces somewhat critical of himself all of the Manchus were also burnt this literary Inquisition had brutal consequences for example as the son of a Jiangsu poets wrote a poem in 1778 praising his late father it was George anti Manchu by general the Emperor ordered his coffin to be unearthed and desecrated and all his children and grandchildren executed in many cases the death by a thousand cuts all intro was pre kanai's Daz a means of execution towards the end of his life shen long proved to be reckless when in 1790 a concerned official reported to him evidence of massive corruption among the court officials the Emperor scolded him and the actual corruption was not investigated shen long was now very old he still technically held absolute authority over the empire a scene reminiscent of his own childhood would take place in 1791 during a hunting trip with his grandson winning son of tutor Abruzzi a team Chen LAN was impressed by how the boy though a child was able to shoot a deer with his bow he praised his grandson he would later become Emperor dal Quang in a similar fashion that his own grandfather Kang XI had praised him 70 years ago the over 80 years old Emperor began relaxing his personal control of a state affairs he now spent most of his old days enjoy luxurious imperial comforts arts and literature letting his favorite officials including Hassan he would become the most corrupt official in history to administer most Affairs in the rapidly developing West Chinese goods were in high demand tea was especially appreciated in the United Kingdom and since Britain had a trade deficit with China the British decided to send an official diplomatic mission to China the first in history to try to get a better deal subsequently the McCartney embassy was assembled in 1793 and left the British Isles sailing for the great Chinese Empire its main objectives was to create a permanent representation of the United Kingdom in the Empire for further diplomatic affairs asked for an end to the restrictive Canton system and inspired by Portugal's territory of Macao obtained an island to create a trading base off China for the British East India Trading Company the British expedition was exceptionally allowed to land in Tianjin by officials instead of Canton the customary landing place for all foreigners from shenzhen mccartney reached beijing and finally was received by the chen long emperor in chandra after both parties proceeded with the customary politeness ceremonies shen long heard the british requests and promptly rejected every single one of them in his response to king george 1/3 of britain the emperor stated our celestial Empire possesses all things and prolific abundance and lacks no product within its borders there is therefore no needs to import the manufacturers of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce although the diplomatic mission was unsuccessful Western knowledge of the mysterious Chinese lands was greatly strengthened as painters accompanying McCartney had captured the scenes of the late 18th century Ching dynasty two years later the Dutch launched their own diplomatic mission that did sing Embassy the events led to a humorous moment when the Dutch representative count out before general making his hat fall off and the Emperor laugh the mission went well although much like the British one it had no consequences in either trade nor politics the following year in 1796 respecting his oath of not ruling longer than his grandfather can see the 85 year old Emperor Qianlong was ready to advocate from the throne an exceptional event in Imperial China two of his chosen heirs had successively died during his reign so the throne passed on to his 15 son Yong Yong who became emperor jiajing and 36 years old in a unique ceremony in reality although Jang was now the Emperor Qianlong kept on ruling from his retirement his son ruling in name only most Chinese people did not realize it yet but the glorious days of the dynasty were now past much liked in long's own life the high ching era golden age of the dynasty was ending Chen Long's rule was by far the most eventful of the Ching dynasty his many military expeditions allowed China to become the largest it would ever be the ten great campaigns which led him to call himself elder of the ten completions were nonetheless achieved at Pyrrhic costs Chen Long's literary censorship and policies enforced the sense of national identity that was different from simple ethnic pride of past dynasties yet it had also reinforced anti Manchu sentiment for some during Chen Long's reign the population of China practically doubled reaching 37 percent of the world's population the economy had also thrived although withering in the later years of his reign due to war and heavy corruption Chen long finally died of natural causes at the turn of the century on the 7th of February 1799 dying at 87 years old Shen long had been the longest-living emperor in all of Chinese history while the West was in the middle of the Industrial Revolution China now led by the 38 year old emperor jiajing clinging on to a tradition and past glories would soon enter the century of humiliation thank you for watching my video I hope you enjoyed it if so please leave a like and subscribe to the channel if you have any questions or requests feel free to leave them in the comment section below [Music]