EXTRA MINUTES SUPERBBUGS Harvard Experiment explained

the way we start that experiment we now collect bacteria in the area where there is no drug they're happy they go they have enough food and they start propagating forward at one point though which is the boundary well now they need to move into an area that have enough drugs to kill them the one who goes there because there is food but they cannot because every time they try they get killed by the drug at that point without evolution nothing would have happened so the bacteria to move forward towards and be able to go it is higher the consultation they need a very specific change mutation in the DNA in the genomes in the genes the chance for that mutation to occur is very slim maybe one evening billion but because we have many many bacteria trying to do that more than a billion then one or a few of them by chance would acquire that very unique rare mutation that would allow them to go and penetrate into this condition where the dark concentration is higher it is only that bacterium and its progeny that would be able to enjoy the food at that new region and they would take over the population and now we have a new population of again billions of bacteria but all of them are now resistant to the Doug now they go they propagate forward and they reach another step now the our concentration is increasing to ten fold higher again it's the same game we are looking at bacteria looking for a very specific change to the DNA to the genes that would allow them to go in this high or low concentration condition the chance for that again is one in a billion but again they win by the numbers there are more than billion cells on this plate and some of them even just few would be able to mutate and grow and be able to penetrate into this yet tired our consultation and these pauses keep going and we're just going to see how far can they to each and can they actually go in 204 then maybe even 1,000 fold the drug consultation so what we see in that experiment we see evolution happen in action in front of our eyes what is evolution naturally when the bacteria replicates a DNA from time to time they by chance make a mistake in replicating the DNA these mistakes to change one letter in the DNA in the genes of this bacteria we call this myth mistakes mutations these mutations that peel by chance many of them have no effect or even our bed for the bacteria but a very specific change can actually allow the bacteria to grow a tired our concentration many of these changes to peel all the time but when the bacteria reach the point where they encounter the hired our consultation then only this well unique once said that got this unique mutation that allow it to resisted that own it will be able to grow and divide when the rest are dying and it would take over the population and now we are dealing with a new population again of billion cells descendant from this one individual that by chance got a specific mutation that allow is allow it to resist the dog