Gluconeogenesis Pathway Made Simple BIOCHEMISTERY

in this video we will study about the gluconeogenesis let's play this term which will help us to remember about this process just from the name the world Group Co means glucose neo means new and the word Genesis refers to the production under normal circumstances the carbohydrates are broken down in the human body by various enzymes into glucose but this is just a breakdown under special circumstances substances like fat amino acids pyruvate are converted into glucose thus the production of glucose from new sources thus gluconeogenesis can be defined as a synthesis of glucose from non carbohydrate sources before beginning make sure to support math simplified by hitting the subscribe button on our youtube channel we can also visit med semi comm for a small donation maybe share new flashcards written articles suggestions and much more so let's talk about the concept of gluconeogenesis in a bit detail the average person consumes food many times in a day which ultimately gets converted into glucose and this maintains a blood glucose levels between 100 to 200 milligrams per deciliter throughout the day the excess of the glucose gets converted to glycogen which is stored in a liver and this is used later when the blood glucose levels fall another fasting state the blood glucose levels start falling and excess of the glycogen which is about hundred grams gets converted into glucose which maintains a blood glucose level but this like Rajan reserved soon gets depleted and the blood glucose levels start falling but some tissues in the human body like the nervous tissue and the red blood cells can only utilize glucose as a source of energy so substances like fat amino acids and pyruvate get converted into glucose by gluconeogenesis which maintains the blood glucose levels about 50 to 60 percent of the gluconeogenesis takes place in the liver 40 percent of this process takes place in the kidneys and some minor amount of gluconeogenesis also takes place in the intestines the metabolic reaction involved in the process of gluconeogenesis involved like alice's Krebs cycle and sub burn the reactions so it is very very important to understand about the process of glycolysis and Krebs cycle in detail so before progressing any further make sure to watch the videos on glycolysis and Krebs cycle on our Channel so we consume food in a lot of complex carbohydrate forms throughout the day which through our intestines gets converted to glucose glucose is a six carbon compound and if you have studied a video on glycolysis you know that the glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvate which is a three carbon compound this happens through a series of ten reactions known as glycolysis out of this three reactions are irreversible it is very important to understand the significance of these three irreversible reactions these reactions are catalyzed by specific enzymes which are upregulated only when the concentration of glucose is high so that the excess of glucose gets converted to pyruvate this prevents excess concentration of blood glucose but these three irreversible reactions can be reversed using specific enzymes which are upregulated only when there is a deficiency of glucose in the blood these reactions are upregulated during special circumstances like fasting during fasting this pathway can run in complete opposite direction so that the pyruvate gets converted to glucose other substances like propionate are first converted to intermediates of Krebs cycle which then get converted to pyruvate and substances like lactate are first converted to pyruvate directly which converted to glucose later so here is an overview about the process of glycolysis glucose is converted to glucose 6-phosphate by the enzyme glucokinase the glucose 6-phosphate is then isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate then the enzyme phosphatase adds another phosphate at the first position and converts it into fructose 1 6 bisphosphate and through a series of reversible reactions fructose 1 6 bisphosphate is converted to phosphoenolpyruvate and 2 a last irreversible reaction phosphoenol pyruvate is converted to pyruvate by the enzyme phosphofructokinase the first reaction which is reversible and we have to talk about is the conversion of pyruvate back to phosphoenolpyruvate for this pyruvate first traveled to the mitochondria through specific carrier proteins in the mitochondria pyruvate is converted to oxaloacetate by the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase the enzymes in the green are the gluconeogenic enzymes which are expressed during fasting in this reaction carbon dioxide is used and ATP is also used oxaloacetate is then transferred back to the cytoplasm which through the help of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gets converted to phosphoenolpyruvate in this reaction GTP acts as the electron donor and carbon dioxide is liberated back phosphoenolpyruvate then is converted to fructose 1 6 bisphosphate since these reactions are reversible the next is reversible reaction is the conversion of fructose 1 6 bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate this is brought about by the enzyme practice 1 6 bisphosphate ace and the last irreversible reaction is the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate back to glucose which is brought about by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase phosphatases are the enzymes which break the phosphate bond now other substances like propionate lactate and glycerol also are converted to glucose through specific pathways let's first talk about propionate propionate is first converted to sectional co a and if you have watched the video on krebs cycle you know that extraction Alko a is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which gets converted to oxaloacetate and then oxaloacetate is converted to phosphoenolpyruvate substance like lactate is converted directly into pyruvate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and glycerol which is derived to the part tissue it's first converted to glycerol 3-phosphate which is then converted dihydroxyacetone phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be converted to fructose 1 6 bisphosphate 2 the reactions of glycolysis so this was all about the gluconeogenesis I hope you find this video helpful make sure to subscribe us on YouTube and like our page on Facebook for all the latest updates