Meiji Restoration

[Music] [Music] today I will be talking about meiji restoration the meiji restoration also known as the meiji revolution or renewable was a chain of events that brought about enormous changes in the political and social structure of japan it occurred in the latter half of the 19th century a period that spans both late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji Restoration the formation in 1866 of the Satsuma ciaossu alliance between Saigo Takamori the leader of the Satsuma clan and aikido takayoshi the leader of the Choshu clan build the foundation of the meiji restoration these two leaders supported emperor ku my emperor made his father for the purpose of challenging the Tokugawa Shogunate and restoring them / a true power On February 3rd 1867 Emperor Meiji ascended the throne after the death of his father Emperor kamae on January 1867 this period also saw her pants change from being a feudal society to having a capitalist economy and left the Japanese with lingering Western influence the tokugawa shogunate came to its official end on November 9th 1867 when Tokugawa Yoshinobu put asparagus eaves at the Emperor's disposal and resigned after 10 days this was effectively the restoration of the imperial power shortly after this in 1868 the bhasin was started in which the ciaossu and the Satsuma clan defeated that ex Shogun's army this forced Emperor Meiji to strip Yoshinobu of all his power and set the stage for the final restoration on 3rd January 1816 the Emperor made a formal declaration of the restoration of his power some of the Shogun's forces fled away to Hokkaido where they started or attempted to form a breakaway republic of edom but the forces loyal to the emperor ultimately ended this attempt in the Battle of Haku d'etat in Hokkaido and finally formed the imperial power of the Meiji ruler the leaders of the Meiji Restoration as his revolution came to be known as acted in the name of the imperial power the word maid she means enlightened rule and the goal of this was to combine Western advancement with the traditional Eastern values the main leaders of this restoration were hito Hirobumi takayoshi itadaki Yamagata etc however political power transformed from the Tokugawa Shogunate through an oligarchy consisting of all these leaders the Meiji Restoration accelerated industrialization in Japan which led to the rise of military authority till 1905 and under the slogan enriched the country and strengthen the military the media oligarchy that formed the government under the rule of the Imperial Authority started certain measures to consolidate the power against the remnants of the eto government Shubin time moon and the samurai classes therefore we see there was an overall change overall revolution during the Meiji period or after the Meiji Restoration there was change in the sphere of society there was change in the sphere of economy there was change in the sphere of education there was change in the total society during the Tokugawa period there are certain social change which became very remarkable the whole society during the Tokugawa period was divided into different parts but during the Meiji period we see a remarkable change this class distinction of the society was abolished the untouchable hmmm class they were getting privileges during the after the Meiji Restoration moreover the higher classes stopped hitting the farmers or the peasantry class which form 80 percent of the total population of Japan the Hindman class got services in the government on the other hand feudalism was abolished the feudal lords gave their lands and people at the disposal of the Emperor and they joined the Emperor's service in many ways moreover we see that a class distinction which has totally ended with the Meiji Restoration brought about an overall change in the Meiji period otherwise we see that previously there was a class distinction which we do not see during this period the national army was formed during the Meiji period the feudal Army of the Tokugawa Shogunate was ended and this national army was at the disposal of all the classes of the society so the army became very important and there was a mandatory being declared by the government that all male members of Japan of 21 years of age have to serve the army for four years compulsory and they have to be at the reserve for out of some other few years on the other hand we see that there was change in the society there was almost change in the all aspects of society Gaslight was introduced post and telegraph system was is introduced education became very very important during the Meiji period University was formed in 1869 on the other hand we see that after two years this university was declared as the Department of Education elementary education became compulsory from 1872 there were higher education there were higher schools there were middle colleges there were university therefore this revenue revolutionised the whole education system of Japan we see Western influence in the education field we see influence of the Americans we see influence of the Germans we see influence of the French on the other hand female education became very important in Japan though till 1902 female education was closed higher education was closed to the Japanese women but still their education system was revolutionized after the Meiji Restoration another significant change we see during this period was the translation of foreign books to check these languages in 1873 the Society for translation was formed many foreign books many Western books were transformed France related into the Japanese language on the other hand the Japanese students were allowed to go abroad to get training and education from the Western countries and by the end of 1880s 34 foreign experts visited Japan so we see that with the coming of the parry mission with the thumbing of the Harris mission Basin ization started in Japan but ultimately with the meiji restoration westernization reached its peak and we also see that there was total economic development in Japan there was tenancy act was legitimized there were a number of land reforms the thymus and the samurais they gave their land and people to the Emperor then we see that banking system starter in Japan the first banking system the first national bank was opened was introduced in 1873 then in 1876 other four banks were started so banking system developed in Japan also there was postal savings system in Japan was also introduced during this period some Meiji Restoration brought about an overall change in the Japanese society previously Japanese society was a closed-door society but with the influence of the West with the Western missionary missions coming to Japan and with the Meiji Restoration the Japanese society became an open society you talked of the how class division was abolished during the Meiji period how hidden there were the lowest class and they were given privileges so a wall was there any vested interest for giving them privileges like we see in India here the low caste the inside in luring Japan during the Meiji Restoration that time I don't think that the maid she newly formed Meiji government did actually have any vested interest previously in the Tokugawa period we see the class division in Japan Society was divided in two many classes like samurai peasants merchants craftsmen ETA and Henan but and these lower-class people were totally exploited during the Tokugawa period so to stop this exploitation class distinction was abolished totally and after the abolishing of class distinction these lower-class untouchable Hin ins they were given lots of privileges during the Meiji period and there was no vested interest as such for providing such services to the lower classes there was no elected body as such that was aiding the Meiji rulers to rule the nation of course I was elected but it may be these people also had voting rights maybe so that it was later on but at the time initially it the nation has gone through a tremendous feudal structure this was a change from a feudal structure to a modern society so modernization started with the Meiji Restoration so there was a total change and there was a body the oligarchy consisted of certain leaders who were trying to influence the major deulim mood so hito but still at the initial stage there was no such vested interest but this oligarchy consists of leaders who were mostly from the ciaossu and Satsuma to me you mentioned that the Japanese government was encouraging students to go abroad for higher studies so was there no fear of the Japanese government that once these students were enlightened in Western political science maybe theories of mark socialism they might try to overthrow the monarchy of Japan and try to establish a total democracy or maybe a communist government no at that point you know Japan was entering from a feudal structure to a modern structure so modernization was the main priority of Japan at that time they did not have such thoughts in their mind that these students who were going abroad might try to set up a democratic system it was that they were sending these two they were sending Commission's they were sending missions so that they are enlightened with the Western thoughts and they would return to the country and help the Japanese government society an economy so at that time they did not have such ideas in their mind but initially they have just the restoration took place so was it in keeping with this modernization that women education was suddenly given so much of importance yes because Edo universities were formed in 1869 then after back education for off from all levels from elementary education middle school education higher education college education everything was given important not only that other is commercial institutions were also opened how was the female education scenario in Japan before the Meiji Restoration work girls not educated at all except people delecious female education before me she Japan you know Japan at that time was a closed-door society so the Japanese girls lived in the home and they had a home oriented life and education and that time was not so advanced advancement of female education started with Meiji Restoration yet this clause that till 1900 and to higher education for Japanese women were closed so we see that door it is going entering the modern period though it is entering the modern phase but still for female education they had some biasness and for this reason tonight here in to higher education was not provided to the women this was a scenario Japan on the other hand we see that banking system developed previously there was no banking system in Japan but in with the Meiji Restoration banking system develop on the other hand we also see that there was total industrial development in Japan industrialization developed in Japan and the industrial structure was built on the infrastructure which had the Tokugawa Shogunate had already built many industries were nationalized many almost of the industry's got the help of the new Meiji government but the Meiji government gave importance to non-strategic industry the previously strategic industry was very important but the Meiji government gave very much importance to non-strategic industry like glass sulfate cement sodium etc another thing we see during this period it is woolen textiles woolen textiles developed during this period sir drilling became mechanized and silk reeling industry also developed during this major period another thing we see that big industrial houses coming up and they are helping the government because lack of fund was one of the main reason for industrial backwardness in Japan because the mean she government was just formed so the Meiji government needed lots of fund for industrialization so in this crisis situation the big industrial houses known as zaibatsu they came up and they helped the government to develop industries on the other hand we see that with the coming of the Western missions and with the restoration another important change took place in Japan the love the people of Japan started learning foreign languages because they wanted they wanted to know about the Western books Western journals Western magazines so they started learning foreign languages so learning a foreign language became very popular in Japan and also the women population also started learning foreign language this was very important there were lots of industries in Japan sing shipbuilding industry railway industry coal industry cement industry so there were lots of industrial development took place in Japan from an agricultural economy Japan became an industrialized economy during the Meiji period the Meiji period revolutionized the whole society the Meiji period brought about total change in the social order there was a great difference seen from the previous period so Meiji Restoration brought about total change in the Japanese society now another important thing we see in Japan 1870 the Ministry of Industry was started and Ito Hirobumi was the first minister of industries and from 1873 to 1878 he was the minister and it was his initiative and his influence that total industrial change took place in Japan so we see a total development the total developmental scenario started in Japan though in 1853 the peri mission started in 1858 the Harris mission came to Japan these were the entry points these entry points did not offer you know influence had a lot of influence on the Japanese society because West empowers by entering the restoration did not take place at that time it took place at a later period but these were the entry point through which Western influence started entering Japan and this revolutionized the whole society which ultimately brought about the major restoration and with major restoration Japan entered the modern period Japan entered the modern times and Japan became modernized there was rapid industrialization in every sector of Industry there was development not any industry were no industries which did not get help from the new mean she government there's again a new class of people coming up the zaibatsu who were helping the government for industrial development there were other commercial Institute coming up there was the banking system which was introduced in Japan there was a postal banking system which started in Japan there was a total change in the total economic structure of Japan the feudal economies with changed into a modern economic structure so Japan was entering Japan now became an important member in the family of nation after major illustration in the social sphere also we see there's lots of changes klaus distinction was abolished translation started in japan new periodicals new magazines newspapers from the west were started coming to japan japanese students were allowed to go out to the west I'll go to the Guate broad for receiving education we're seen experts were coming to Japan so there was a total there was a total change in Japan the total structure changed from being a feudal structure to be transforming it to a modern structure so meiji restoration is one of the very important incident in the whole japanese history because it brought about japan it brought about a modern era to japan it gifted japan with modernization it brought about total change in the japanese society from a feudal structure it developed into a modern structure from an agrarian economy it's developed into an industrial economy so there was a total change it revolutionized the whole society and with this Japan entered the modern period on the other hand we see another important feature in Japan at this time the currency system developed currency system developed and the Central Bank of Japan had the power to issue currency this total industrialization of Japan which brought about Japan which gave Japan modernization did not follow a meandering course there was boom and there was depression so Japanese industrialization did not follow a meandering course due to the successive boom and depression in Japan on the other hand we see another very remarkable change during this period we see that with the coming of the Western powers dress and fashion also changed there was also a change in the dress and fashion of Japan though women there was no such change in the women's dress but still the Japanese people had were influenced by the Western attires so they born they were very much influenced and delights the Western attires so slowly it seems that best was penetrating into Japan and this Western penetration ultimately brought about the total change of Japan and this change was remarkable was unless Western powers entered Japan would not have seen this remarkable change this revolutionary change of the society so Western powers played an important role in westernization of Japan in the industrial development of Japan and the major ruler brought about a total change in the Japanese social and economic structure so major restoration is one of the very important incident in the Japanese history which should be remembered because it revolutionized the whole society and you said that there was a compulsory conscription for 4 years of the Japanese boys so was there any like possibility of War work there was no possibility of war actually Japan had previously a feudal structure so the army was a feudal Army but with the Meiji Restoration Japan has entered the modern era but at the initial stage there was no margin of a Western Weston typed army in Japan so in order to form a very efficient army like the Western system alike the West they made this compulsory declaration for joining the army so if it was trying to strengthen up its army then why a world and non strategic industries more encouraged than strategy because previously strategy industries were already encouraged so these non strategic industries were not at all they were neglected so we know the industrialization means strategic and non-strategic of industrial development so for total industrialization this strategy and this non strategy industries were developed was run on strategic industries developed in order to increase employment yes of course non strategy the industries whatever lot to start employment facilities or provide employment facilities because you should remember that the samurais had given up their lands the time was have given up the lands and they were jobless and this created discontentment over the country and if this discontentment you know rises up then the major ruler will completely there will be a complete breakdown of the meiji ruler so in order to satisfy this class of people these sort of industry industrial development was very important the samurai what the main people who were investing in these non strategic industries now summarized were not reinvesting they were employed they were employing zaibatsu sois the invest investors or they were like the Tatas and Birla's of India and this but the samurai were well they still they only had to give up their order they had to give up their land status no they had to give up my land and people the land and people were previously at the jurisdiction of the samurai but after back there to give up it was under the control of the imperial authority of Japan there to give up their whole feudal state as there is you have to give all feudal status and feudalism was abolished previously the summer is allowed to carry on sort but after ministration they were not allowed to carry Soudan for this reason they have a number of rights and one of the important right was started by Saigo Takamori which ultimately turned to a civil war and Western Army Western trained army were appointed to stop the Civil War and the major rulers got trainers from America from Germany from Britain from France but isn't it contradictory like at one one point of time at once while on the one hand they're encouraging non strategy in all strategic industries at the same time they're making it compulsory the four years conscription isn't it very contradictory the whole thing yes it may sound contradictory but Japan has to build become a modern nation and for building up a modern nation the well-trained army was very necessary previously you should remember that Japan had there was a transformation from a feudal structure to a modern structure so they have already abolished the feudal AMI and solved to become a modern nation and to become an important member in the family of world nation a strong army was necessary for Japan therefore they made this a compulsory class Meiji Restoration brought about total change in Japan a revolutionize Japanese society economy it brought about industrialization in Japan it transforms your pan from a feudal structure to a modern structure it transformed Japan from an agrarian society to an industrial society so Japanese industrialization was the gift of Meiji Restoration which brought about a total change total revolution in the Japanese society it brought about total change in the life of Japanese people and with the Meiji Restoration Japan became an important member of the world of nation [Music] [Music]