Mitochondria structure and function Cell Physiology medical animation


Dr.G.Bhanu Prakash - Usmle , FMGE and Neet PG


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[Music] mitochondria structure mitochondria are intracellular organelles found in almost all human cells mitochondria are thought to be derived from the Arabic bacteria that invade the proto eukaryotic cell more than a billion years ago and lived in a symbiotic relationship with it exchanging energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate for residents however this endosymbiotic hypothesis is not universally accepted and has been challenged each human cell contains on average hundreds to thousands of mitochondria the exception is mature red blood cells which rely exclusively on anaerobic metabolism and contain no mitochondria although mitochondria were originally represented as individual isolated organelles it is now recognized that mitochondria form a dynamic connected Network also called a reticulum or syncytium mitochondria have four main compartments the outer membrane which is permeable to certain ions and small molecules the inter membrane space which has a composition similar to that of cytosol the inner membrane in which are found the respiratory chain proteins the inner membrane is folded into multiple cristae allowing for a large surface area the matrix or the inner part of the mitochondrion where most of the metabolic reactions take place the mitochondrial DNA is found within DNA protein complexes called nucleons in the mitochondrial matrix function mitochondria are intracellular organelles that are essential for aerobic metabolism and energy production through oxidative phosphorylation which is accomplished by the respiratory chain however mitochondria are not only the ATP producing powerhouses of the cell mitochondria are involved in several other metabolic pathways including beta oxidation the Krebs cycle and the synthesis of iron sulfur clusters in addition mitochondria maintain replicate and transcribe their own DNA and translate mRNA into protein the import and assembly of proteins is another important mitochondrial function since most proteins that the mitochondria require are encoded by nuclear DNA and translated in the cytosol the ongoing remodelling of the mitochondrial Network is also a function of the mitochondria additional roles of mitochondria and apoptosis production of reactive oxygen species calcium homeostasis maintenance of lipid membrane and immunity have been described