No Gods No Masters A History of Anarchism Part 2 of 3

[Music] Louis Michele voter in declare Emma Goldman pierre-joseph poodle when event or a dirty Ricardo Flores Magon the big names of anarchism wrote spread and sowed libertarian thought the great migratory waves which had already carried it to the United States of America also took it to the most remote countries of the earth be it in Palestine or Egypt amongst Jewish exiles or Indian communities within the confines of the African continent as in the east and as far as the Empire of the Rising Sun anarchists were everywhere at the beginning of the 20th century all seemed to be for the best in the best of all possible libertarian worlds anarchism had become a part of the social landscape to the point that libertarians could be seen flying their black flag on the brand-new postcards and if they were arrested it was only disguised as nursemaids for the comic purposes of a path a brother's production the ultimate irony came in 1910 when I'm on fatty Air the new president of the French Republic even went in person to bezel so to inaugurate in a lavish ceremony complete with a noxious and marching Swiss Guards a monumental statue dedicated to the father of anarchism pierre-joseph poodle but in the wings conditions for workers remained very difficult and faced with an imminent global crisis the need for great change was making itself felt more than ever then this is how from France to Mexico and from Spain to the Ukraine in a time full of sound and fury anarchists said about trying to destroy the old world once and for all [Music] however it wasn't with a revolution that the libertarian 20th century began neither was it in 1907 in Amsterdam during this international Congress where the cream of world anarchism managed to more or less come to agreement on the necessity of organizing the movement into national federations capable of setting off a general strike in revolt should war be declared the libertarian 20th century began spontaneously much earlier on at a particular time in a forgotten place with this new kind of woman and man creating one of the other great currents of the anarchist movement individualism [Music] descendants of the Age of Enlightenment and heirs to Romanticism individualists s-- were the awful terrible of their time they read Nietzsche and sterner advocated mass conscientious objection and insisted on immediately leading a full life at odds with the authoritarian principles of society at the time to do so jigs and I have examined the trajectories of these people one by one and what they wanted was to be able to work with their hands but also with their heads to be whole men they wanted to lead what they considered to be the good life which was far from being an easy life and they wanted to lead it here and now this global desire for change which led individualist to reject work family country the very foundations of bourgeois morality brought them to propose an alternative lifestyle and new practices of their own invention which in turn made revolutionaries of them it was to include absolutely all aspects of life sexuality education clothing they advocated nudity women abandoned the concept of corsets and restrictive clothing in place of marriage they advocated open unions or in some cases free love multiple relationships were possible there was no problem in loving several people at once neither for women nor for men at least that was the doctrine but in reality of course there was much grinding of teeth and suffering being individualist did not prevent these anarchists from grouping together and if they couldn't change the world then they decided to change the universe in towns they created libertarian Athenians and in the country agricultural colonies and wherever they went they developed coherence in their ideas and actions like here in Palestine the Jewish anarchists founded de ganya the first kibbutz but it was particularly in Latin America that truly libertarian cities grew up there was new Australia and Paraguay were amongst others mary gilmore settled and the colonia Cecilia founded in Brazil by Giovanni Rossi and a group of a Italian anarchists of which only one image remains for four years these libertarians abolished hierarchies religion and money set up councils loved freely and sang songs my company Allah foreign law Claudius OSHA to Perez Nipigon fee - top receiver rapacity your anonymity protect Laurie OSA at Vittorio's our trio third gc3 on Farah but anarchism didn't triumph and these colonies truly alternative societies which were meant to be the seeds of a new world closed one after another certain individual lists concluded that in order to change society you had to change the individual and to change the individual evil had to be pulled up at the roots in their opinion middle-class schooling instilled authoritarian values and children from the outset and consolidated all the mechanisms of power it needed to be attacked and revolutionized they became constructive educationists devising teaching methods which combined ancient vidalia with libertarian principles the task of the anarchist was to educate in a way you could say they needed to create the new man before they could create the new society the great emphasis was placed upon intellectual sensorial and even physical elevation no aspect of life he's ignoring experiments into new forms of education sprung up all around the world such as Sebastian Falls lavage and Paul Robbins soapy orphanage but one of the most comprehensive was the modern school founded in Spain and based on the anti-authoritarian principles of Francisco fed Francisco Ferrer was an important anarchist pedigo who started something called the modern school movement and the idea was to bring secular non-religious education to children but also to adults tried create an equal relationship between the teachers and the students where the students could choose what they wanted to learn it was integral education that is to say it had to be both manual and intellectual the child needed to know how to do just about anything it was exclusively based on the use of reason without imposing anything upon the child from outside we are not afraid to say it we want to create men whose intellectual independence will be their supreme force who will submit before nothing capable of discerning what is good and aspiring to live 1,000 lives in the space of just one society fears such men and we must not expect it ever to support education which is capable of producing them Suzuki 15 a fascinating thing when you read about the anarchist view of Education and in my opinion this is something rare amongst educational theorists is that they're suspicious of themselves they are so wary about illegitimate Authority that their reflections about education contain a deep analysis of the dangers of indoctrination within their own projects non DiPrima so you can read things along the lines never forget that we're not looking to produce good little anarchists let us always be wary of the power which we ourselves have over these children we are trying to make free men they may think differently from us later on that is how we will know that we have indeed made free men these secular and libertarian schools where children can be seen wearing hoods naturally stirred up fantasies and a success was his worrying for the clergy as it was for the booze huazi Francisco fed air their founder despite always having been opposed to any form of violence had to be arrested as quickly as possible during the tragic week in Barcelona an opportunity was found to wrongfully charge him he quickly became a target of repression he 1909 he was accused of having instigated the Barcelona general strike and was condemned to death believer in sunni directly under this you know international solidarity quickly developed on all the continents in United States in Australia in all the major cities of Europe recorded Europe your one demon if assist there were demonstrations for a stay of execution petitions there were even governments who intervened asking the Spanish government to spare him but Ferrer was executed and then a few hours after his execution the crowd started to gather in the big cities everywhere but particularly in Paris the Parisian rampage was to be the most spectacular of all on the 13th of October 1909 there was an uprising of extraordinary intensity road workers who were at that time the cornerstone of the proletariat arrived with pickaxes over their shoulders and tore up the avenues exposed gas pipes PS Thurmond set them alight Paris became an inferno or unwise you the assassination of their era at the hands of Spanish justice which provoked the most violent uprising in Paris since the commune had similar repercussions throughout the world there were the demonstrations from kotaku in Japan a few months later and those of Sacco and Vanzetti in the USA which allspark demands international solidarity movements faced with his state violence against innocent humanists numerous libertarians took up arms and attacked what society held most dearly exponents of theft which they prefer to call expropriation individual reclamation or revolutionary banditry attempted to set off in Europe a revolution which seemed too long in the making anarchists everywhere struck added property and burglary suddenly became a revolutionary strategy [Music] what the problem is very simple if I'm a revolutionary opposed to capitalism for what mysterious reason would I not attack a bank why would I not expropriate a bank to finance the revolution method is another question I'm not talking about killing the little old lady waiting at the tellers window I'm talking about a radical assault on capitalism in the form of a bank robbery in the eyes of a revolutionary there's nothing scandalous about it as a little aside even Stalin did it indeed that's what all revolutionaries do but it was anarchists who turned these tactics into a system and associated their names with the biggest robberies of the time there was Buenaventura dirty spain's leading terrorists before becoming the leader of the anarchist revolution in Catalunya along with Isola Dario's plundered parts of Europe and Latin America there was Severino July Argentina's public enemy number one who pulled off the biggest robber his country had seen to date in the Ukraine Nestor Makhno at the heart of the union of poor workers expropriated and redistributed the confiscated goods but in France who was marius jacoba striving at the heart of the band of night workers who made the greatest impression he was very well organized and very gifted in this domain Marius Shakur robbed businesses churches of course rich individuals but as far as possible without employing the least violence even with a certain elegance he would sometimes leave little ironic notes for the people he'd robbed luckily yes I have stolen a pocket handkerchief from you worth 250 francs is it 250 franc handkerchief not an insult to misery Marius Jekyll the anarchist thief who despite committing more than 500 robberies only kept for himself enough to live on served his Maurice LeBlanc's model in the creation of the character assembly patent but the state wanting to send a message to anarchists tempted by illegality arrested him and despite his eloquence inflicted an exemplary punishment this man who had never shed blood was condemned to the bloodless guillotine of a lifetime's hard labor and deported to French Guiana for revolutionary bandits the message was clear since Authority sends even the innocents to their deaths better to kill before being killed it was in London in 1911 that the first major confrontation between revolutionary bandits and the forces of law and order would be played out over several hours during what the history of Anarchy would remember as the Battle of Stepney a siege took place at 100 Sydney Street at dawn the neighborhood was completely closed off to anarchists holed up in a small house offered fierce resistance to more than 800 police officers and members of the Scots Guards the operations were overseen by the Home Secretary a certain Winston Churchill who could be seen on the left in a top hat unable to dislodge them the artillery was sent for the house caught fire the two revolutionaries died in the flames newsreel cameras were sent to the scene where a considerable crowd had gathered to watch the show but was this young mechanic who legend has it was conan doyle's london chauffeur among the curious bystanders one thing is sure on his return to france the following year he decided to move into action by forming a gang which would soon send a shock wave across Europe the buno game libel might refer to call them the tragic bandits firstly because this wasn't a gang under the authority of a leader and if there was a leader I see no reason why it would have been Bono rather than someone else they were militant anarchists devoutly militant individualist swear the combative past the young Octavio Yi for example had been imprisoned following a construction workers strike during which he was severely beaten by the police who ended up finding what he had been looking for in individualist Egyptian austere doctrine Ayers leading exemplary lives these men were strangers to tobacco alcohol gambling or brothels they frequented the Anarchy newspaper directed by Victor savage but it was through their knowledge of mechanics that they first entered history by being the first to use a car to commit robberies the meager takings were far from being sufficient to finance a revolution but their attacks were characterized by indiscriminate violence number of dead they left behind sword a price was put on their heads with the press offering a reward of a hundred thousand francs to whoever enabled their capture the brand-new Tiger brigades were set on their trail but far from being afraid the bandits defied society with octave Gagne going as far as writing to the heads of the third Brigade known as the anarchist brigade I know this will come to an end in the ongoing struggle between society's impressive Arsenal and myself I know that I will be beaten I will be the weaker but I hope to make you pay a high price for your victory sustained note it ended up in a siege between isolated men and a thousand strong true the way of 10,000 spectators who had come to see the capture of these hunted men who knew assistir literally due to his own sake it's so bad they fought like lions to the very end knowing full well that they had no chance of his face on TV news so far I would say that's what actually turned them into propagandists by the deed the tragic bandits actions came to an end on the 28th of April 1912 in the suburbs of Paris here to the newsreel cameras were invited to the show the police placed bombs which were set off when the operation was over the bodies of the anarchists were put on display like hunting trophies this affair left a lasting impression and momentarily marked the end of revolutionary mandatory in France Bono like many illegal asleep ECAM a controversial figure rejected by or reintegrated into anarchist thinking in accordance with the needs of the time we too could do come rather than consider the actions of the bono gang as a genuine protest movement personally I tend more towards the theory that it was the manifestation of a failure many shake that is to say as he's owed it these are events which sometimes attract a sort of morbid curiosity reality they remain marginal occurrences he Houston he can say as far as the bono gang was concerned it was the marginality of a group which was marginal the media circus which had grown up around the bono gang was above all instrumental in disqualifying the anarchist movement in its efforts to avoid war because in the face of mass demonstrations by libertarians alongside other socialists here for example at the place of Java near Paris or during the read week and in Kona in Italy where man attest have managed to spread the general strike to the marches to Romania and as far as Tuscany the imperialism's were above all worried that the workers of the world might come to an agreement they had reinstated the villainous laws and made up lists like the infamous B file in France which contained the names of all suspected revolutionary leaders to be arrested should a conflict begin but thanks to the fear generated by the tragic bandit affair and faced with the shock provoked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo the state had no need to resort to these methods and with the death of Jean Jo s even some anarchist mainstays like Kropotkin ended up rallying behind the sacred union and while Europe was on the point of engaging in a war which would kill millions of workers although it's not always remembered anarchists in Mexico were behind the first great libertarian revolution it's hard to understand why the Mexican Revolution doesn't have the same importance attached to it as the Russian Revolution or the Chinese Revolution but it was the first major revolution of the 20th century [Music] the Mexican Revolution begins at the end of 1910 and in its early stages 1910 1911 1912 one of the factions the major factions fighting within the Mexican Revolution was the partido liberal Meccano the PLM which is led by the Magoon brothers andrey k and Ricardo Flores Magon who are Mexican anarchists in exile in the United States when the revolution breaks at Floyds my goodness Flores Magon and his comrades played a fundamental role as the precursors of this revolutionary movement they created the conditions necessary for the revolution you could say that they were a constant inspiration for all the other revolutionary factions their propaganda continuously pushed the other factions to be more radical mcgoon in fact regarded the Mexican Revolution as the first act and the great worldwide conflagration which was just around the corner for him the global libertarian revolution was just about to take off the Mexican Liberal Party which was at the origin of the revolution was liberal and a party in nothing but name but it was well and truly an anarchist organization as could be seen from its manifesto written by Ricardo Flores Magon its place in the purist libertarian tradition was not only because it advocated direct action but also and above all by virtue of its call for vast agrarian reform for it has to be remembered that since its beginnings the anarchist movement was the only form of socialism to assign a central role in the revolutionary process to farm workers furthermore this explains its success in a Mexico which was still highly agricultural and this concept spread it inspired the three other mass revolutionary organizations Emiliano Zapata 's insurrectionary army in the south the house of the world worker in the capital in the center and the Mexican branch of the IWW which had opened in the north and the slogan which Flores Magon and the anarchists of the PLM placed at the bottom of their writings was taken up by these movements and became the rallying cry the entire revolution land and liberty they said to the peasants grab a Winchester in hand and take the land because it belongs to you you don't have to wait for the working class to develop the peasants could have their own revolution magnate Gunn had confidence in the spontaneity of an armed populace that is to say that he considered an armed uprising a fight to the death against the system to be the way of establishing a libertarian society this call to arms resounded as strongly here as it did on the slopes of the Sierra Madre and the high ground of the Chiapas where peasants had lived for 400 years in a state of extreme misery Evangelization the encomienda and smallpox had done their work the native peoples had been almost entirely wiped out the womb of the bunch of mama was desecrated daily and a whole subcontinent was bled dry humiliated and corrupted placed under the control of a handful of Latta fondest who owned all the land the vast majority of workers survived with no prospect of betterment the day-to-day life of these men and women was a literacy famine and illness and back-breaking work beneath the Blazing Sun which burns celluloid and skin alike shouts and blows were the only encouragement and confiscation the only reward the slightest gesture of revolt was punished with a whip and any attempt to escape as in the times of slavery by death in 1911 the magoons organized in invasion of northern Mexico of Baja California there is a group of around 50 Italian anarchists from the United States and Canada who crossed the border to join the PLM forces there's there dozens of members of the IWW there are African American radicals who join there's at least one Chinese partisan they invade the city of Mexicali in northern Mexico seize it from federal troops maintain control of it and then they also seized Tijuana and for a period of a few months they control this area of northern Mexico the small army of the MLP surrounded by the IWW and led by general Mosby seen here on horseback open to the prisons and flew the black flag over the land and Liberty commune the Libertarians of the whole world expressed their enthusiasm Emma Goldman took part in meetings Kropotkin wrote the first theory on guerrilla warfare Jack London published a collection of short stories in the United States in Argentina in Cuba in Portugal in Italy the anarchist press everywhere enthused about the Mexican uprising which would perhaps overturn the old order in this time when song still spoke of the lives of men Joe Hill a Swedish expatriates troubadour was a leading figure in the IWW went to participate in the uprising in the same way as the International Brigades were due later Furby a soldier should I ever be a soldier the song which he wrote for the occasion is a musical testimony to this involvement and a call to other workers to join the fight it's the crush of the tyrants am i joined the army are the toilers man away men fall in line wait fates of the world are us do your duty for the cause for land and liberty it's the first time that anarchists see a situation in which there is an army under anarchists leadership taking steps to implement libertarian communism that's the express goal of the PLM is to create a new anarchist society in Mexico and then from there to spread the revolution to North America and to the rest of the world so anarchists not not just in the United States but in Europe people like Peter Kropotkin as well view the the Mexican Revolution in its early years as a as potentially an anarchist revolution in the making and the very first one but caught in a vise between Mexican counter revolutionaries on one side and the Yankee army on the other the fight was to waited against them the communes were retaken the Mexican revolutionaries shot and he captured foreigners were herded together in camps at the border but although they had lost a battle in the north the anarchists had not lost the war and FLOTUS Megan's hopes turned toward the south and a rugged and rebellious army led by a charismatic general the beautiful right from the start Ricardo Flores Magon considered that Zapata even if he didn't regard himself as an anarchist in practice he behaved like one as did this upon his troops they commandeered land without waiting for any sort of legislation and distributed it amongst themselves Liliana Zapata who represented the indigenous peoples had been influenced by the reasoning of the Mexican Liberal Party in the Flores Magon brothers who knew him well had an enormous sympathy with the Zapatas movement thus upon 'test army which consisted of nearly 28,000 fighters at the height of the revolution engaged in truly guerrilla warfare in the southern states as they gradually advanced they redistributed land even minted their own money and managed to reach the gates of Mexico City was the libertarian revolution on the point of triumph in Latin America in their weariness the jubilant crowds who watched the revolutionary troops going by or unaware that Mexico would become the theatre of a terrible misunderstanding a misunderstanding between anarchists of the towns and anarchists of the fields between workers and peasants which was to weigh heavily on the history of the libertarian movement because the Mexican capital was under the control of the house of the world worker the mighty urban anarcho-syndicalist organization which was purportedly fifty thousand men strong the workers of Mexico City and the town tended to consider the peasant masses as reactionary they were of the opinion that the new world couldn't be a product of the backward peasant masses as they saw them but rather the avant-garde enlightened workers Rosa Batista she gossip artist turned up with the rosary beads Virgin of Guadalupe medallion the reaction of the Mexico City anarchists was to say they were under the influence of Catholicism at all it dose it's a new fresh air operate at Alicia's bow they said to himself they've been manipulated instead of genuinely questioning what they were doing in la practica this was Commission scared to these peasants to know he didn't go to Mass even they went with their arms to take land on the tiara the second practice they reacted like truly militant in our kisses mitrovski knows me that they say that keisters well the militant anarchists of the cities were more intellectual regarded them as the marxist cliche of capitalist lackeys or lackeys of the church potaka is a leg Lygia Ashida it was really a wasted opportunity between anarcho-syndicalism and Sabbath isms econo II is a petitioner you had this terrible break in 1916 between where the leadership of the the co m decided to to form red battalions to attack the Zapatistas this was clearly a class betrayal having completely lost their bearings the workers of the red battalions turned into auxiliaries of the budva army and thanks to them the counter revolutionaries brought down blind repression on the population in transit dependent upon chess had set up their staff headquarters 268 peasants were massacred including a hundred and twelve women and 42 children by way of a swan song Ricardo Flores Magon published a manifesto for anarchist of the world and workers in general but the only ones to hear him were the North American authorities arrested him and condemned him to end his days in a high security prison and sapota himself ended up being caught in an ambush this internal war between different progressive factions is really what helped throttle the anarchist content of the revolution at the at what what should it should have been it speak and I know was unfortunately in the end no real reflection went into analyzing the causes of the anarchists failure during the Mexican Revolution ishik hold on okay consequently soon afterwards the Liberal Party and Flores Magon were forgotten about Laurie as things turned out the Mexican anarchists had no time to feel sorry for themselves to learn any lessons from what had happened but if the Mexican Revolution was forgotten it was because European libertarians were caught up in the worst days of the First World War and their lack of interest in the results of this far-off uprising was deepened when in 1917 at the gates of Europe a revolutionary breeze was felt blowing from Russia suddenly something new in the East Coast 1d6 in February 1917 there was the first Russian Revolution Tsar made a run for it a certain democracy was set up with the Soviets the Soviets the workers councils taking over from the anarchists found that wonderful an eight-hour day the abolition of the death penalty the freedom of opinion and of conscience initially the Russian Revolution attacked injustice and gave all power to the Soviets in this immense Russia where homage was paid to Tolstoy where a monument was built to the glory of Baku Nemeth and Kropotkin was given ministries and our guests could be forgiven for thinking that anarchy was at last in the process of triumphing the beginning of the Russian Revolution helped reinvigorate the anarchist movement because it was the kind of revolution it seemed that they advocated a spontaneous insurrection he must measure the vast majority Tsar as an extremely positive thing in effect that somewhere in the world it so happened to be in Russia men and women had risen up to say that the former system of power was over initially the anarchists believed that there was a possibility that in Russia they would at least see the birth of a truly communist country merely said state but they didn't want to stage one of the country which would turn itself into a communist society partisans of libertarian communism forgotten was the battle between Marx and bakunin at the heart of the first international they could now see in the Bolshevik revolutionaries with whom despite disagreements about methodology it would be possible to team up and create the new world together anarchists in Russia have been active partners with the Bolsheviks and with the socialist revolutionaries and others in helping to overthrow the Czar in in organizing soviets and factory comedians the enthusiasm of libertarian Russians can also be explained by the fact that vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov alias Lenin was not at the time considered to be a dogmatic Marxist or an inspiring despot his party did not yet call itself communist the first political treaty written by him was entitled what is to be done in reference to the novel by the libertarian Russian channel chefs key he was opposed to the sacred union and had demonstrated an anti militarism which had seduced the libertarian masses but above all for Russian anarchists Lenin was still the little brother of Alexander oddly enough the propagandist by the deed hanged in 1887 for having prepared an assassination attempt against the Tsar this glorious genealogy added to his libertarian pledges led them to believe that Lenin might be sympathetic toward them and the publication in 1917 of his book the state and revolution seem to confirm this hypothesis another when he marched in the cocoon it type in lenient natural viscosity I was not a jacquard you have to realize that at one point let him started expressing radical ideas pretty far removed from Orthodox Marxism or a Marxist also view mentally criticized the idea of the state thereby holding out a hand to anarchists we do not after all differ with the anarchists on the question of the abolition of the state as the aim we maintain that to achieve the same we must temporarily make use of the instruments resources and methods of state power against the exploiters we set ourselves the ultimate aim of abolishing the state and what's more Lenin stands his ground saying we're going to be accused of being anarchists for saying that but all the same I'd rather be accused of being an anarchist now then being confused with Social Democrats who form part of the governments of the sacred Union effect so that helped to bolster the illusion on both sides that Bolsheviks and anarchists actually had the same objective in mind had more or less the same methodology in the field and were only separated in terms of internal organization this illusion of a convergence of points of view and a similarity in the objectives was once more accentuated in October but Lenin put into action a strategy directly inspired from anarchist the storming of the Winter Palace for the anarchists who took part their moment of glory had arrived clearly that provoked an incredible amount of hope well attested at the beginning you looked kindly upon the Russian revolutions at the beginning and even Kapaa t'nuk went back to Russia because he thought that the revolution was going to veer towards libertarianism and along with Emma Goldman from the four corners of the earth and artists flocked to take part of the revolution libertarian organizations quickly claimed the high ground like in Moscow for the Federation of anarchist groups controlled part of the city but it was in the Ukraine that the libertarian movement showed its potential thanks to a young peasant of Zaporozhye and Cossack origins who've been taking the leadership of the uprising in northern Crimea became one of the major figures of 20th century anarchism magno was a peasant a very humble extraction but with immense military talent a military Achilles and he managed to organize a peasant and popular uprising in the Ukraine rally people wanted oh he created an anarchist type communities pretty much everywhere proves that a revolutionary avant-garde did not necessarily need to take the form of a party during the months after leaving who the Apple a and the fertile plains of the Ukraine the MEK no Sheena the insurrectionary army which bore the name of its organizer sowed revolution as it passed an anarchist and peasant militia it flew a black flag with a skull and crossbones under which was written death to all those who oppose workers freedom [Music] and as it gradually advanced the Magno Sheena like the legions of Spartacus of old took over the towns and day after day expanded its influence but no Sheena controlled the territory equal in size to that of an average European country in which hundreds of thousands of people live or a Peace Corps Siddhartha when they seized a city they the first thing they did was open the jail and release all the prisoners they distributed the redistributed food and whatnot amongst themselves and the population they drew up plans for collective ownership of farms and factories McLouth got immeuble i loop on this commandeered of army functioned on a voluntary basis officers were elected peasant communities which found it necessary to defend their land and liberty with weapons sent volunteers to join the freely supplied horses chariots and food army the city tachanka prada warrior forum a university to karate Nesta we formed an army of up to 40,000 men canto de servicio with all that that entails administration services medical teams they made us at one point they even had an armored train momento didn't rent them in trembling lado an armored train like trotsky's accepted theirs had anarchy written on it it allowed bad komak no father Mac no as a supporters called him and these are the only filmed images of him to transport his cavalry from Julio Polly in Alexandrovsk Kharkov and even as far as Kiev the whole length of a front which stretched over 1,000 kilometers [Music] in this way his troops could carry out a veritable war of harassment on the planks a pet diores counter-revolutionary forces behind the terrible white armies of general denikin and in the month of october 1919 the second anniversary of the uprising at a moment when everything seemed lost for the Bolsheviks mac know and the anarchists saved the russian revolution yeah dr. Deborah vo d but the population in the Bolsheviks had begun to take fly either so so significantly here's a really good example of the efficiency of the marvel Sheena which just sit around in its own backyard mark know was capable of thinking of the common interest thereby serving the revolution that particular moment at the beginning of 1919 was his hour of glory when he organized an alliance with the Red Army an alliance which is voluntary on both sides in which was immortalized in front of the cameras is the Bolshevik dybenko with his impressive stature and McNall looking so small beside him it's a bit like looking at two conceptions of the same revolution the hardline Bolshevik one and then Mark know who has the air of a somewhat romantic revolutionary leader about image but in Moscow where Lenin had just decreed war communism the anarchists actions had started to be frowned upon as had the criticisms which they were already voicing at the very heart of the new capital concerning dictatorship over the proletariat for most other anarchists that is the signal that the Bolsheviks are not true revolutionaries that they are not interested in the well-being of the working masses that they are not friends of the anarchists or anyone else who is not a Bolshevik this was essentially a moment when the Bolsheviks who were basically a revolutionary group amongst others found themselves politically isolated in attempting to stabilize their power the shtetl notably by trying to eliminate those who had the same sort of militarized groups as themselves so it was a question of who was going to win by getting you saw results in the face of criticism Trotsky who had just taken over leadership of the Red Army decided to as he put it rid Russia of anarchism with an iron broom but he first had to invent consent aware of the potential of a new weapon of mass propaganda the Bolsheviks went about producing for the fledgling cinema films denouncing the dangers of middle class disorganization and an anarchic banditry [Music] the Bolsheviks did not attempt any revolution in their methods of communication they simply recycled the same worn-out cliches used by the boosts while European press which had portrayed libertarians as inebriated provocative arsonists to be crushed that yeah but he this brought about a genuine rupture between anarchists and the Bolsheviks Shanique who were very quickly to become the most dangerous adversaries that the anarchists movement had ever has [Music] but when Kropotkin died in 1921 the authorities suddenly decided to organize a national funeral were the Bolsheviks feeling remorse all the country's cameras were mobilized to capture this homage paid by the revolution to one of the fathers of anarchism Emma Goldman who can be seen here even delivered a eulogy at the service whether Moira Potkin died in 1941 many anarchists were already in prison the Bolshevik Party allowed them to be released so that they could attend the funeral there were thousands of but immediately afterwards they were sent back to be Jews these measures were extremely cynical dodging the Bolshevik regime manufactured a disconcerting lie on the one side they were celebrating someone who was by any standards a great Russian and on the other they were taking measures against his philosophy from the media the ceremony was hardly over when under the direct orders of Lenin the libertarian poet Lev cherni and the militant fanny Barron were shot dead in the cellars of the Cheka prison along with seven other anarchists and in the following weeks the Bolsheviks decided to purge the last two strongholds of anarchism in the Soviet Union the Ukraine would be later but first it was Kronstadt where the sailors formerly known as glory in honor of the revolution had formed a commune for the Central Committee the threat was too close and the symbol too dangerous despite Emma Goldman's offer to mediate Trotsky sent in the Red Army which crushed the small island under its bombs [Music] the end of the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising was on March 18th 1921 which correspond to both with the Bolshevik Party Congress in the anniversary of the Paris Commune so from a symbolic point of view was very impressive in the spring of 1921 only the Makarov Sheena were left to oppose the Bolsheviks it was on the shores of the Black Sea amid alcohol fumes and Cossack dancing that the anarchist army apparently unaware of the famous phrase inspired by the Aeneid Timmy O blood should be good doughnut horrendous beware of Bolsheviks bearing gifts was decimated by the Red Army the cavalry in the Martin of Shinar officers were with the Red Army near to Sebastopol they threw a huge banquet to celebrate a victory here on kombucha tea as you know Leninism was very well organized yeah Kia nice saddle and during the night all the mark noticed officers were shot dead past lead me astray needs a man escape IP any garage de bourree attract each the final pages of the Magna saga are tragic it's a desperate race a battle with no hope of victory that was true of a wounded beast to everybody but this majestic now who's being approached goodbye but bars Ogden Iranian expiry oh but the Russian Revolution was catastrophic for anarchists are well that would look at the stretched condition the anarchist movement totally ceased to exist in Russia hkg Chaney I see you tell them you will pass the nearest representatives died in Stalin's camps or in exile but the executions and the deportation of anarchists to the solo of key islands had the principal objective of reducing libertarians to silence because at the very moment when it was attempting to make the workers world believe that socialism was being built within its borders the Bolshevik authorities could not take the risk that testimony from frontline revolutionaries might tear aside the veil of the workers illusions that's why the assassinations were accompanied by the total censure of anarchists words and since that day and even more so after the rise to power of Stalin for whom as we know from his early writings and Arc ISM was a long-term preoccupation the Marxist history books have made no mention of the role played by libertarians in the Russian Revolution it has taken many years for the new generations in the East as well as a large part of the West to be able to hear the total criticism of the Soviet regime which was first formulated by anarchists the anarchists were the first to raise this critique of the fact that this would in fact be state capitalism that the state would become the sole landlord the state would become the sole capitalist and this would not in fact change capitalist relations with the working class at all other than the fact that the working class really would then have no it a hide if they had no place to hide it was because during the immediate aftermath of the war the capitalist bourgeoisie also tried to repress the anarchists revolutionary attempts of wherever they could with no lesser barbarity than the Bolsheviks had done like in Germany were the libertarian leaders of the Bavarian Soviet republic Eric Newsome asked Toller let moderate were imprisoned hunted down or lynched by a mob like Gustaf Landauer whose body was left by the authorities to rot in the street for several days by way of an example in Bulgaria the uprising in the 23rd of September 1923 which was intended to establish a government of workers and peasants ended up in a white terror during which the very Orthodox King Boris the third purportedly had the head of George chetan off the young Bulgarian anarchism theorist delivered to him on a tray the tragic week which brought to an end the hopes raised by the great demonstrations in the Florida and Argentine fund an echo in Colombia with a banana massacre when the United Fruit Company assassinated hundreds of anarcho-syndicalist s-- these repressive waves flowed as far as China where the movement of May 4th 1999 inspired by you Shifu the first Chinese anarchist was broken up by the Warlord's a young teacher present in Tiananmen Square in Peking a certain Mao Zedong witnessed the brutal repression of students and was deeply marked by it this terror of anarchism sent a tremor as far as the slopes of Mount Fuji where the Imperial Japanese authorities arrested and beat to death Sakai asougi and Ito nuit as well as their six-year-old nephew whose unrecognizable bodies were thrown to the bottom of a well let's not forget Italy which came to the brink of revolution capitalism also reestablished his order here thus fulfilling the prophecy of Malatesta who can be seen here on the left hanging the crowd the bourgeoisie will make the proletariat pay for its attempts at revolution with tears of blood yes wherever anarchism has tried to make its ideas triumph its militants have been arrested persecuted and assassinated even in the United States of America another historic land of anarchism the revolutionary movement was fought against and his fight would culminate in the condemning to death of two innocents [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music]