Rankine Cycle Simple and Basic


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[Music] today's engineering topic is funking cycle so what are we waiting for it started right away Rankine cycle was named after Scottish polymath and Glasgow University professor William John McCone Rankin it is a vapour power cycle for a little definition power cycle is a cycle which is heat to generate work and since it's a vapour cycle it uses the vapor phase or in this case steam to rotate the blades of the turbine it actually utilizes the heat energy contained in coal oil for natural gas and it converts it into mechanical energy and eventually electrical energy which of course provides electricity in our city and in our homes one of the best definitions for the cycle is that it closely describes the process of steam turbine systems and it's derived from the Carnot cycle the most efficient thermodynamic cycle which tells us that power is dependent on the temperature difference between a heat source and cold source the higher the difference the more mechanical power can be efficiently extracted out of heat energy so now let's talk about the variance are the types of Rankine cycle we have a reheat Rankine cycle it is a cycle which we introduce the exhausted steam back into the boiler to reheat it we also have a regenerative Rankine cycle we bleed apart the steaming two heat exchangers to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler there is also an organic rankine cycle it uses an organic high molecular mass fluid with a boiling point occurring at lower temperature than the water steam phase change a supercritical Rankine cycle is also one of the types just like we heat and regenerative Rankine cycle water is the working fluid but it is operated at above this critical pressure so those are the types of ranking cycle but here on this video we will only discuss the most basic and fundamental of the cycle the ideal Rankine cycle we must be aware first that this operates slightly different in the real Rankine cycle this is a reversible cycle common source of irreversibilities are neglected such as frictional pressure drops and undesired heat transfer with the surroundings a constant pressure or isobaric process and constant entropy for isentropic process are used for the equipment's involved in the cycle the working fluid is water and it will undergo a closed loop and will be reused constantly so why do you use water as the working fluid well simply because it is not toxic not reactive highly abundant love cost and good thermodynamic properties to make a Rankine cycle we need four processes process 1 to 2 for the boiler process 2 to 3 for the turbine process three to four for the condenser and finally passes for you one for the pump and that is what we are going to discuss for the next part okay so let's get started four passes wants you to boiler these are the things that we need to remember since boiler is a heat exchanger equipment heat is added into the boiler through a fuel which may be coal oil or natural gas here water is converted into steam or superheated steam this is an isobaric process or a constant pressure process the temperature and entropy for this process in pieces and we can solve the heat addition by using the formula we've added equals with energy administered energy Inc or enthalpy out minus enthalpy in for boiler note that this equation is formed by using mass and energy rig balance for control building at steady-state neglecting pressure drop so those are the important things that you should remember it understanding the boiler passes [Music] now steam can be used in the next process which is the process to the trip turbine turbine is a rate generator equipment it contains series of stages are a set of stationary and moving blades to perform its function by using the steam work is generated through the expansion of vapor which may then be converted into electricity through generator compared to the previous process here since we have an equipment that involves work isentropic process or constant integral process is assumed yes it is a shame because in real world there is no such thing as ideal on this process the temperature and pressure decreases and the formula for the work is fluid energy in - fluid energy out are the enthalpy - - and topic 3 note that question is formed by using mass and energy weight balance for a control volume at steady state and lifting heat transfer with the surroundings steam is now already exhausted and so we need to take dark against the boiler but there is no pump that can pump steam so we need to convert it first into water through condensation so this is where our next process comes in [Music] process three to four condenser in order to condense the steam a heat rejection must occur most of the power plants utilize the seawater as a cooling medium to cool down and condense the steam condenser consists of tubes to accommodate the heat transfer of steam and cooling water where cooling water is in a separate stream this is a heat exchange equipment so we assume that this is an isobaric process or constant pressure passes the entropy decreases and the quality of the fluid changes until it reaches a saturated liquid state so from steam to liquid the equation is heat rejected because fluid energy in - fluid energy out or enthalpy 3 - enthalpy for not again that this equation is formed by using a mass and energy rate balance for a control volume in steady state neglecting pressure drop [Music] last process is passes for two one pump [Music] pumps main purpose is to convey and introduce back the condensed into the boiler here work is needed that means work is negative some plants name this pump as boiler feed pump and it can be either steam driven for electric motor-driven again since this is a work involve equipment we assume that this is an isentropic process or constant entropy process the temperature slightly increases and the fluid is in a sub cooled region in the TS diagram the formula for the pump is work it was fluid energy add - fluid energy in work enthalpy one - input before fluid energy add our improper at is greater than the enthalpy as the pump have imparted energy to the fluid note again that equation is formed by using a mass and energy rate balance for control volume a steady state neglecting heat transfer with the surroundings and one more important thing please remember that the pump has the highest pressure in the whole cycle [Music] okay so let's have a recap starting from the boiler we convert the liquid water into steam introduce it into the turbine to generate work and then we condense it into the condenser and pump the liquid water back to the boiler through a high-pressure pump so that's it Engineering is a fun thing I always suspend see you again for our other easy and fun engineering topics is engineering engineering topics made easy and fun for you [Music] you