Realistic Simulation Inside a Black Hole New Universe through White Hole


Arvin Ash


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They're one of the most mysterious things in the universe. Theorized from Einstein's theory of relativity, they were thought to not even exist for much of the 20th century. Today not only do we know that they exist, but in 2019 we were able to see the first actual photograph of a black hole by a collection of synchronized networks of telescopes called the Event Horizon Telescope. Black holes are mysterious because they are utterly impenetrable. No one can ever peek inside one of these things and come back to tell us what they saw. Black holes are like the Las Vegas of celestial objects. what happens inside a black hole stays inside a black hole. Yet they may hold the key to not only the formation of our galaxy, but to our understanding of the true nature of the universe itself. Although we can't see inside, we can calculate what's inside. Let's take a trip there because what lies inside a black hole just might make you rethink reality itself. What would you see as you fell in? Would everything go dark? Or would you find yourself in - a new universe? The preposterous fantastical trip inside a black hole is coming up right now... first let's define what a black hole is. A black hole is not a celestial body like a planet or a star. There's really no substance there, other than a severely curved space-time. It's a region in space where matter is condensed to a theoretical infinitely small point, so small in fact, that this point effectively disappears from our universe. This is called the gravitational singularity. This is much like a hole in space and is the final destination for anything that enters the event horizon. The singularity is a region where none of our equations, or notions of reality applies. So if there's nothing there what does it mean when we talk about different sized black holes? When we talk about the size of a black hole, we're really talking about the size of the event horizon. This is like a sphere around the singularity. It's completely dark because light and no other form of energy can escape beyond it. There is something called Hawking radiation which is thought to escape from the event horizon, but that's subject for another video. The event horizon is like the edge of a waterfall beyond which space is actually falling in faster than the speed of light. The radius of an event horizon is called a Schwarzschild radius. And it's defined by this equation. Karl Schwarzschild calculated, using Einstein's equations, that anything with a mass can theoretically become a black hole, if the mass was compressed enough. If you compressed earth into the size of a marble about one and a half centimeters in diameter, it would become a black hole. Similarly, if you compress the Sun to a sphere about six kilometers in diameter, it would become a black hole. What happens beyond the event horizon can be ascertained to some degree by general relativity. but what happens at the singularity, the hole in space-time, is anyone's guess. And there's at least one competing theory Loop Quantum Gravity, that says that no singularity actually exists. Something even more fantastical happens there. Let's explore what happens there right now by taking a video journey to a black hole, and beyond. To do this we have to choose the black hole very carefully. All black holes are not the same. Ironically the more massive a black hole is the less its density and the less dangerous it is from the perspective of its gravity ripping your body apart. This is because the Schwarzschild radius doubles as the mass doubles, according to the equation. But if the radius doubles, then proportionately the volume increases eight times. So the density decreases quite a bit, as the event horizon gets larger. Very large black holes like the one at the center of our Milky Way, called Sagittarius A* has about the same density as that of water. Ao if you want to go inside a black hole, we should choose this one or bigger. If the black hole had only a mass a few times that of our Sun, you would get torn apart or spaghettified long before you reached the event horizon, because gravity would be so large that if you fell feet first, your feet would be pulled much harder than your head. You could likely go deep inside Sagittarius A*'s event horizon before tidal forces eventually tore you apart near the singularity. We will use NASA's hypothetical IXS Enterprise to get to Sagittarius A*. It will take us three years at a warp speed of 9,000 times the speed of light. When we arrive, we see that its event horizon is about 24 million kilometers in diameter, which is about 17 times the diameter or Sun. For the sake of simplicity, we will presume that Sagittarius A* is a non-rotating uncharged black hole. This is also called a Schwarzschild black hole. A highly curious member of our crew team, Adam has volunteered to enter the black hole, while the rest of us watch from a safe distance away. Adam's spacesuit, by the way, is made of a futuristic material that is super strong and immune to high-energy radiation. As Adam gets closer to the event horizon, we noticed that he speeds up then something strange happens, he slows down, and his spacesuit appears to get redder and fainter, until he disappears from our view. He's still there, but the light reflecting off of him is so red shifted that it is invisible even to our infrared cameras. But if we had some futuristic technology that allowed us to view Adam that close to the event horizon, he would appear to be completely stationary. This is because at the event horizon from the perspective of the ship, time stops completely. This is due to gravitational time dilation as defined by Einstein's special relativity. Time slows down as gravity gets stronger relative to someone not subject to that same gravity. So Adam stays completely stationary for all of eternity from the perspective of the enterprise. From Adams perspective, his time is running just fine. But he's moving faster and faster close to the speed of light as he enters the event horizon. We're also going to presume that nothing is falling behind him. The images you're seeing now are not artists' impressions but actual computer renderings based on calculations by dr. Andrew Hamilton of the University of Colorado, who generously agreed to let us show them. They're some of the most realistic available anywhere. The event horizon appears to get much larger and far faster than he expected, as the curvature of space gets severe around the event horizons. Space is so distorted that Adam sees multiple images of the outside universe. Space-time curves more and more severely as he gets close to the black hole. His lines of sight from the stars in the universe are bent severely, but Adam sees nothing beyond the event horizon. It's completely dark. As he peers back, all the light reaching him is being blue-shifted. In fact, as he gets closer to the event horizon, light that was infrared, not visible to him before, is now in the visible spectrum. And light that was visible before, is blue shifted to x-rays and even gamma rays. If it weren't for his indestructible suit, he would have been incinerated from this radiation. Since Adam is experiencing severe time dilation, near the event horizon, would he be able to see the entire future history of the universe, just before he enters the event horizon? Theoretically yes, but in reality no, unless he had a very powerful rocket attached to his suit and he could hover over the event horizon. Then he could view this, but it would only be viewable as a small dot of light, directly overhead. And it would be so blue shifted and bright that he would not be able to make out much of anything. You might ask how is it possible the people on the ship see Adam as not moving, but Adam is moving and doing just fine from his perspective. This is one of the crazy things about reality that Einstein's equations and black holes reveal. Both perspectives are correct. There is no timeline in our universe where we would see Adam crossing the event horizon. Yet for Adam, he's moving just fine and about to go inside. How can this be, that two realities are equal? This is because the laws of quantum mechanics require that Adam remains on the outside of the event horizon because otherwise it would violate one of the fundamental conservation laws that information can never be lost. On the other hand, Einstein's theory of relativity requires that relative to Adam, nothing is different. Time for him ticks normally as he goes straight on through the event horizon. So does this mean that Adam enters a different universe when he crosses over? This is speculation, but it is entirely possible, because the event horizon serves as a kind of cosmic firewall that keeps two different timelines, and perhaps two different universes, apart. Let's get back to Adam because he's now inside the event horizon. But not much changes him. The view of the outside universe remains visible. And he can also see some parts of the universe that have fallen behind him as well. but he can't see light that fell before him. And he can never actually see the singularity, because all light is headed towards it. No light is headed away from it, towards his eyes. He falls with the faster-than-light flow of space-time but time for Adam is ticking just like it was outside the event horizon. He experiences a very weird sensation though. He still has a sense of upness and downness, inside the black hole, but every direction feels downward. Even looking up, feels like looking down. Space-time is bent so drastically towards the singularity, that there's literally nowhere to go but towards the singularity. If Adam tries to fire his rockets to go back up towards the event horizon, where he entered, he will actually be accelerating towards the singularity faster. Time becomes space inside the black hole. Like time is always moving in our universe, space is always moving inside the event horizon. The same way that all possibilities move toward the future for us, all of space moves towards the singularity inside the event horizon. And what happens once Adam reaches the singularity? He'll be ripped to shreds. He will be a kind of soup made of all the fundamental particles that will get crushed. And what was once Adam, will become one with the singularity. At least that's what most physicists think will happen to Adam. Is there any way that Adam can escape this grim fate? Believe it or not, there are two theoretical scenarios in which he may actually survive, if of course his space suit was strong enough. In the first case, if this black hole is a charged black hole called a Reisner-Nordstrom black hole, this math would be similar to a spinning black hole, as most black holes are believed to be. In this case, the singularity would take the shape of a one-dimensional ring. And this spinning singularity creates such a high centrifugal force, that space near it becomes gravitationally repulsive instead of attractive. And the spinning singularity creates an inner horizon that is a wormhole, or an Einstein-Rosen bridge. Once you hit this inner horizon, you would see an infinitely bright point of light which is an image of the outside universe reflected by the repulsive singularity, then you'd be catapulted out and through a white hole. What's a White Hole? It's like a black hole reversed in time. Nothing goes in. Everything comes out. this would mean that if Adam's suit was strong enough, he would be catapulted to another universe. And in the second case, if the theory of Loop Quantum Gravity is correct, which is a competing theory to string theory, then there would be no singularity in the black hole at all. This case would be very similar to the rotating black hole, except there would be no infinitely bright light. Adam would be transported to another universe through a wormhole. See my video and loop quantum gravity if you want to know more about what that theory is. Now all the scenarios I highlighted here are possible but are they realistic, because these simulations don't take you to account the tremendous amount of matter and light that is likely falling into the event horizon? What would a trip inside a black hole look like that had matter and light? Well we're in luck because Dr. Hamilton also created what is considered the most realistic trip inside a black hole that takes all those things into account. And here is what the computer simulations say if you or Adam were to fall into Sagittarius A*, the four million solar mass black hole at the center of our galaxy. Here's what it would look like as you approach the event horizon. Notice that nothing special happens as we cross the outer event horizon, the point of no return. The tidal forces here would not be enough to rip you apart. And you could make it through here just fine. then you are about to enter the inner event horizon. Notice how the outside universe goes brighter and more blue shifted. As you go inside the inner event horizon there isn't a wormhole here unlike the Reisner nordstrom black hole, because something called "mass inflation instability" instantly rips any wormhole apart. This instability is caused by the tremendous energy and apparent gravity caused by incoming positive energy and outgoing negative energy, due to all the matter and light that has fallen inside the black hole. This energy and apparent gravity is so intense in fact that it would instantly vaporize you the moment that you entered The inner event horizon. And as in the first case, you get crushed and you become one with the singularity. This happens pretty quick, so your demise will be pretty painless. How long does it take? Well, in all scenarios it will take only about 16 seconds, so not much time for sight seeing! A black hole is where quantum mechanics and relativity collide. Gravity becomes a dominant force at the quantum skill at the singularity. Now I've been describing the singularity as a point or a ring. That's hypothetical because it is really a three dimensional boundary where relativity dies, and all our notions of reality are gone. And some kind of new physics like quantum gravity takes over. What quantum gravity is is probably the biggest question in physics. Just about anything can happen as far as we know. The great secret that black holes may reveal to us is that there is no objective reality. Reality depends on whom you ask. It seems to be observer dependent. Ultimately, Einstein's equations may lead us to an understanding that not only is time relative, but reality itself may be relative. Arvin Ash here. If you like our videos, then consider subscribing. And ring the bell so that you can be informed when we upload more fascinating videos. we make one or two videos a week. We'll see you in the next video.