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hi this Sandi team chose to be nice awesome ventures and welcome to Rome Italy welcome to st. Peter's Basilica and Saint Peter's Square we're going to first take a look at the exterior of st. Peter's Basilica then see Saint Peter's Square and then go inside the Basilica and see the incredible works by the Renaissance masters millions of people come to st. Peter's and admire the dome the facade the statues the mosaics the monuments and the sculptures but without knowing the history and symbolism behind them I don't think you can fully appreciate these incredible works of art in this video you're going to see and hear the story behind so many of these masterpieces it is believed that over the last two thousand years more Christian pilgrims have visited Rome than any other city including Jerusalem built on the site where Peter was crucified Saint Peter's Basilica continues to join millions of Catholic pilgrims to Rome every year interestingly st. Peter's Basilica is not even a cathedral or the official seat of the Pope st. John Lateran is the Mother Church of the Roman Catholic Church but because of the size of st. Peter's and its location next to the residence of the Pope most of the church's most crucial ceremonies are held here instead the church is built on Vatican Hill across the Tiber River from the historic center of Rome but it wasn't the first church built here the location is highly symbolic this was the site where Saint Peter the chief apostle died a martyr and where he was buried in 64 AD Saint Peter's considered the first pope so it made perfect sense for the papacy they build the principal shrine of the Catholic Church here in the early 4th century Emperor Constantine the first Christian emperor of Rome decided to build a basilica in Vatican Hill at the site of a small shrine that marked the likely location of the tomb of Saint Peter construction of the Basilica started between 319 and 322 AD it was finally completed around 349 AD to facilitate the construction part of the terrain was leveled and then the crop Allah swear st. Peter was originally buried was demolished in the middle of the 15th century the basilica was falling into ruin and pope nicholas v ordered the restoration and enlargement of the church after plans by Bernardo Rosalina after Nicolas that have died work was halted at the request of Pope Paul v the Basilica was extended further into a true Latin cross plan by carlo maderno who completed the main travertine facade in 1614 moderna wanted the facade low enough so that the view of the dome was not obstructed he also placed a massive columns against the walls instead of in front of the building as Michelangelo had intended the church was finally reconsecrated in 1626 by Pope Urban the eighth exactly 1300 years after the consecration of the first church the hundred forty nine foot high facade is crowned with 19 foot tall statues of Christ John the Baptist and the Apostles except for Saint Peter and st. Paul who are at the foot of the steps on either side a huge clock supported by angels and decorated with ornaments and the papal crest they were added in the late 18th century and where the worker Giuseppe Val at the air the one on the Left shows the exact time in Rome and the one on the right which has a single hand European meantime they recall at the church lives on in time and that Christ will be with her until the end of time beneath the clock on the left is the company or great bell of st. Peter's which weighs 441 pounds it was cast by luigi balladeer and blessed by pius the 6th in 1786 it is Ryan Christmas and Easter and every time the Pope in parts the to the city into the world blessing originally two of Boerne knees monumental towers were to stand on either side of the Basilica however these towers were never executed above the line of the facade because it was discovered that the ground was not sufficiently stable to bear the weight instead the valid the air clocks were installed the Latin inscription reads in honor of the Prince of the Apostles Paul Offit Borghese Supreme Roman pontiff in the year 1612 the seventh year of his pontificate there are nine lodges between the columns and the plasters of the facade in the centre the loggia of the blessing stands out is from here that the election of the new pope is announced beneath this loggia is the famous high relief portraying the consignment of the keys by Ambrogio bunbun Gino it shows Jesus who is saying to Peter I will entrust to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven whatever you declare bound on earth shall be bound in heaven whatever you declare loosed on earth shall be loosed in heaven at the foot of the steps or two statues on the left st. Peter and on the right st. Paul sculpted in 1840 and erected there in 1847 by Pius the 9th replacing two smaller statues the dome of st. Peter's Basilica is the tallest dome in the world rising to a height of 448 feet 137 meters from the floor of the Basilica to the top of the external cross the domes of st. Paul's Cathedral in London and the Capitol building in Washington DC were heavily influenced by its architecture pope julius ii wanted to crown the opah silica with a dome he hired italian architect Donato Bramante in 1506 to do the job but Bramante and the pope died before much could be built before his death Bramante persuaded the Pope to order his rival Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel because he expected Michelangelo a sculptor to botched his job he was wrong in 1546 Michelangelo gain total control of the construction of st. Peter's Basilica who refused to be paid Michelangelo designed the dome and after he died work was taken over by his pupil Giacomo della Porta who completed it in 1590 to support the giant dome Builders placed three iron rings within the masonry but there was still too much tension which caused cracks of the domes base by the early 18th century vatican engineers had to add several more rings as an emergency fix st. Peter's Square which has an elliptical shape was created in the mid 17th century by Italian master John Lorenzo Bernini who laid it out during the pontificates of Alexander the seventh and Clement the ninth the square is bordered by massive Colin odds that symbolize outstretched arms Bernini and his assistants sculpted the 140 statues of saints that graced the ballast rods on the Colin odds the square is decorated with fountains and an Egyptian obelisk that was transported to Rome in 37 ad you can attend the papal audience here every Wednesday if the Pope is in town every Sunday you can see and hear the Pope give blessings from the balcony of his apartment the Pontifical Swiss Guard is a small force about 135 soldiers maintained by the Holy See that is responsible for the safety of the Pope the Swiss Guard serves as he de facto military of Vatican City and is often referred to as a smallest army in the world established in 1506 under pope julius ii the Pontifical Swiss Guard is among the oldest military units in continuous operation the dress uniform of blue red orange and yellow has a distinctly Renaissance appearance there were some who believed that Michelangelo designed the uniforms he did not the Swiss Guard is equipped with traditional weapons as well as with modern firearms and small arms recruits to the guards must be unmarried Swiss Catholic males between 19 and 30 years of age who have completed basic training with the Swiss Armed Forces and must be over five foot eight and a half inches tall this year after over five hundred years the Swiss Guard will receive new and modernized helmets there were several doors in Saint Peter's Basilica this is the holy door in 1947 a competition was announced to create bronze doors to replace the wooden ones the holy door is created by B Co consortium 1948 to 1950 and is comprised of sixteen panels divided by the coat of arms of the 36 Pope's who celebrated the ordinary holy years it is cemented shut and only open for Jubilee years which occur every 25 years the last one being in 2000 the door is also called the door of the Great pardon because its panels contain scenes of man's sin and his redemption through God's mercy [Music] the atrium was designed by Karla moderno and was completed from 1608 to 1612 the Valter ceiling contains 32 scenes decorated in stucco made by Giovanni Battista Ricci the scenes narrate the story of the Apostles Peter and Paul st. Peter's Basilica maybe the most important Church in Christianity but once you enter its doors you also realize that you're in one of the most magnificent museums in the world with priceless works created by Renaissance masters like Michelangelo and Bernini over the course of a hundred years in fact there was even a story about Pope John Paul the second telling a tour guide that Saint Peters was becoming more of a museum than a church the works of art are overwhelming to look at but once you know the history behind them and their symbolism you get a much better sense of what it all means now here's a surprise pretty much whenever you think you're seeing a painting you're actually looking at a mosaic made up of tiny pieces of glass the mosaics in the various chapels are based mostly on existing paintings the Pieta or the pity is one of Michelangelo's early works the sculpture was originally made for a French Cardinals funeral monument Michelangelo purposely wanted to stress the youth of the Madonna going against tradition in the sculpture she shows her grief for her son's death who is gently lying in her arms almost weightless the figure of Christ does not bear any wounds as realists would have wanted he represents the perfect humanity of God man not deformed by death or wounds in 1972 a deranged Hungarian born geologist shouting I am Jesus Christ I have risen from the dead attacked the sculpture with a hammer damaging Mary's arm and nose parts of which had to be reconstructed [Music] the holy water fonts were made from 1722 to 1725 they offer the holy water so that those who enter can make the sign of the Cross and memory of their own baptism the central nave is an extension made by carlo maderno in 1609 st. peter's basilica has an interior nave length of just over 693 feet or 211 meters covering an area of about fifty thousand square feet and it's large enough to hold 60,000 people it used to be the largest Christian Church in the world but in 1989 it was exceeded in size by a church in the Ivory Coast Africa [Music] the papal altar is reserved for the Pope or someone designated by him it faces east toward the Rising Sun it was commissioned by Clement d8 to complete the already finished part of the new Basilica he consecrated a new altar in 1594 the four sides of the altar was standing on four pedestals of white marble rising above the altar is the ninety five foot high bald agenda bald Akeno the canopy masterpiece was created by Italian master John Lorenzo Bernini it took him nine years to make it from 1624 to 1633 and it's made up of a hundred thousand pounds of bronze the 420 foot twisted columns are adorned with sprigs of olive and Bay among which the figures of cherubs appear inside the cyborg or vessels a dove the symbol of the holy spirit and a burst of golden raised above the fries on each Capitol for angels offer Garland's while between them couples of smaller angels support the Pope's emblems the keys the tiara the book and the sword the cross is set on a golden globe the ancient tomb of st. Peter lies directly below the altar in 1603 Clement the seventh Commission Giuseppe Chisari to carry out the upper part of the Dome decoration he prepared cartoons in 1603 to 1612 his drawings were then simultaneously transposed into mosaic by the best mosaic artist of the period above the windows the dome is decorated by majestic figures on six ascending levels starting at the bottom the figures portray busts of the sixteen popes buried in the basilica majestic figures of Christ the Virgin Mary st. Joseph st. John the Baptist and various apostles in the rectangular frames angels bearing the instruments of Jesus's passion the faces of cherubs and circular medallions angels the custodians of st. Peter's tomb and additional faces of winged angels above the ninety-six figures is a blue sky with stars and above at the lantern and whose base is a Latin inscription to the glory of st. Peter Pope Sixtus v in the year 1590 the fifth of his pontificate at the very top is the figure of God the Father before Bramante who is the original architect of the dome died Michelangelo had observed that the workmen were not properly mixing the material for the piers which are solid supports at home vertical pressure the workers were adding too much sand emulation to the amount of cement that was used michelangelo reported this to vermont day but vermont they refused to listen Charlie after Vermont days death cracks began to appear in the piers the Michelangelo fixed the problem Italian master painter and architect Raphael succeeded Bramante is the head architect from 1520 to 1546 but for most of this period all work was blocked because of the economic difficulties of the church this is the cathedra Petri Latin for the chair of st. Peter it's also known as the throne of st. Peter every year in February 22nd the church celebrates the Feast of the chair of st. Peter to commemorate Saint Peter's teaching in Rome already in the second half of the 18th century an ancient wooden chair inlaid with ivory was traditionally held to be the Episcopal chair on which st. Peter sat as instructed the faithful in Rome in fact is a throne in which fragments of acacia wood are visible which could be part of the original chair of Saint Peter encased in oak and reinforced with iron bands Pope Alexander the 7th commissioned Bernini to build a large monument which would give prominence to this ancient wooden chair Bernini built a throne and gilded bronze richly ornamented with vast reliefs in which the chair was enclosed two pieces of furniture one within the other the base of the altar is made of black and white marble and red jasper for large statues and gilded bronze surround the chair which looks almost if it were suspended amidst the clouds the two outer statues of figures of two doctors of the Latin Church st. Ambrose and st. Augustine the two inner statues would bear heads of two doctors of the Greek Church seen a tenacious in st. John Chrysostom above the chair are two angels bearing the tiara and keys symbols of the Roman pontiff Zathura t on the chair a three bas reliefs picked out in gold which refer to the same number of gospel episodes the consignment of the keys feed my sheep and the washing of the feet the whole composition is crowned by the gilt and stucco Gloria populated by a host of angels among rays of light and kantak billowing clouds the composition of Bernie knees masterpiece leads us to imagine that we can see the celestial heavens in their mist as the window of bohemian class divided into 12 sections as a tribute to the 12 apostles a brilliant dove stands out against it the symbol of the holy spirit the soul of the church which he never ceases to help in the guide on the bronze statue of st. Peter created by an awful deacon Brio around 1300 st. Peter's left hand holds the keys his right hand is blessing the right foot stretches out and has been warned by the kissing and touching of the faithful above the statue is a mosaic with a portrait of Pope Pius the ninth he was the first pope in history to reign for 25 years an anniversary which he celebrated in 1871 only the Apostle Peter had guided the church for such a long time and according to tradition nobody could reign for more than a quarter of a century the statue of st. Longinus was made by Bernini from 1629 is 1631 on a stucco model and from 1635 to 1638 on the marble version long chiness was a Roman soldier who served under Pontius Pilate when Christ was crucified it was the soldiers under his supervision who witnessed the crucifixion which deeply affected Longinus he believed in Christ the saint is seen stretching his arms and holding in his right hand the spear which wounded the side of Jesus church tradition says that after wounding Christ he received healing from an eye affliction when blood and water poured from the wound st. Sebastian is a Roman martyr and this work represents his martyrdom under Emperor Diocletian he many others have been persecuted because of their Christian beliefs he was known as a plague Saint and was thought to have the power to ward off disease Pope John Paul the second died in 2005 his remains were moved to the chapel in 2011 the statue of Pius the 12th was commissioned by the Cardinals he had created and was made by francesco Messina in 1964 the Pope is shown blessing the faithful clad in papal robes his gesture also seems to express his desire to put an end to the evil of the second world Warp while his expression seems to reiterate his famous sentence nothing is lost in peace all can be lost with war the name altar of Transfiguration comes from the altarpiece with the Transfiguration of Jesus on Mount Tabor made a mosaic after an original painting by Raphael six artists took 9 years to finish the mosaic finishing in 1767 there were episodes and succession narrated in mark in Matthew's Gospel the Transfiguration of Christ on Mount Tabor and the recovery of the boy possessed by the devil at the top Christ frees himself in the light between Moses and Elijah in the presence of Peter James and John this is the tomb of Pope Innocent xi who lived from 1611 to 1689 he was known for lowering taxes in the papal States and creating a surplus budget much of his reign was filled with tension with louis xiv of france [Music] the monument to Pope Leo the 12th is located above the entrance door to the Chapel of the relics later known as st. Nicholas's Chapel the sculpture was made from 1835 to 1836 and represents the Pope's standing and issuing his blessing during the Jubilee of 1825 the monument to Christina of Sweden was designed by Carla Fontana in 1702 the queen who bravely converted to Catholicism and advocated the throne is shown in a gilt and bronze medallion supported by a crowned skull the creation of the funeral monument the Pope Alexander the seventh was supervised by Bernini it was commissioned by the Pope himself during the first years of his papacy but he died in 1667 before the work even started the door is actually a side exit leading into the Vatican State Bernini transformed the door into a symbolic entrance to eternity by adding a puffed-up drapery raised by his skeleton holding an hourglass Bernini didn't actually do the sculpting but he worked out the plan monitoring the sculptors who transferred his drawings to marble he may have personally done the finishing touches of the Pope's face the innocent the twelfth monument by Filippo della valle features an urn with a statue of the pope flanked by the allegorical figures of charity and justice and crowned at the top by two angels which support the coat of arms the mother holding her sleeping child pays tribute to the pope who always helped the poor the funeral monument to the countess matilda of canosa was made by italian master sculptor john lorenzo bernini with the help of several collaborators and was commissioned by Pope Urban 8 in 1633 the Pope had a special memory of this heroic Middle Ages warrior woman and wanted to honor her her remains were transferred to Saint Peter's Basilica in 1634 if the funeral monument to Pope Innocent the eighth looks different from other monuments and st. Peter's is because it was the only one to be transferred from the opus silica it was moved here in 1621 however when it was reassembled the sarcophagus holding the Pope previously on top was now on the bottom on the top monument the Pope's left hand chose the Lance that pierced Jesus's side next to the pontiff or four cardinal virtues prudence justice fortitude and temperance the upper lunette displays the three theological virtues faith hope and charity the two statues are symbols of imperial majesty and the equalization of death which strikes all mortals alike the chief concern of this pope was the promotion of peace among christian princes he also unsuccessfully advocated for a Great Crusade the sainted Pius the tenth son of a postman and a seamstress radiated the holiness which deeply impressed those who came in contact with him the ordinary Italian people hailed him as a saint a verdict that was confirmed by the church forty years after his death the monument to Saint Pius the tenth was planned by the architect Florestan of the Fausto and carved by the sculptor Pietro a story in 1923 the pontiff carved from the whitest marble is shown standing his arms outstretched the faithful around the door and on its panels are beautiful vast reliefs and bronze illuminated with gold recalling episodes from the Saints life the altarpiece mosaic is the presentation of the Virgin Mary in the temple by her parents she's portrayed as a little girl joyfully going up the steps to the temple with her parents she was brought there to be consecrated by God in order to reach the altars of Holocaust she would go up 15 steps corresponding to the psalm sung by the Jews while going up the stairs Mary went up on her own never looking back at her parents st. Pius the tenth was the last Pope to be canonized he was a great Pope of the 20th century I was known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine promoting liturgical reforms in Orthodox theology he helped restore Christian life by issuing wise laws in the religious education of children youths and adults his catechism gives clear answers to many religious questions he allows young children to take communion the monument to Benedict the fourteenth by Pietro brachii represents the Pope rising from his throne to give his blessing below there were allegorical statues of sacred wisdom on the left and disinterestedness on the right the first figure holds a book in her right hand and as a gilded Sun on her breast the second is flanked by a little angel who is offering for acceptance a cornucopia filled with jewels and money the artist introduced an innovative feature for st. Peter's Basilica the Pope is seen standing emphatically giving a blessing which was in sharp contrast to the compote the act refers to the apostolic blessing given for the Jubilee of 1750 there were 39 so-called founder statues of men and women who founded religious foundations here are four of them Saint Bruno was created in 1744 the statue demonstrates the Saints refusal of the bishops headgear and staff offered by a cherub while his right hand rests on the skull evoking mortality st. Ignatius was a 16th century Spanish Basque Catholic priest who was an important force in the counter-reformation Saint Chaya tan was born in 1487 and spent his life helping the sick and poor in Italy even performing miracle cures on the sick st. Juliana Falconeri was born in 1270 and founded the religious sisters of the third order of the cervix she belonged to a noble family in Florence and cared for the sick on a daily basis since 2001 the altar of st. jerome has been dedicated to pope john xxiii the altarpiece contains the communion of st. jerome mosaic from 1730 which is a copy of a painting beneath the altar is the body of pope john xxiii prior to him becoming Pope he had been involved in saving Jews during the Holocaust and while I was Pope he mean efforts to modernize the church [Music] Emperor st. Helen by Andrea bogey was available for urban the 8 and 1640 Constantine's mother who converted to Christianity and before many acts of charity is represented in a composed posture restrained by the draping the large cross reminds us of the legend according to which Saint Helen found the true cross of the Savior in Jerusalem the Veronica by Francesca Moki was unveiled before Pope Urban the 8th and 1640 after being worked on for 11 years perhaps he took his time because he wanted to quote sign his old age with a memorable work unquote according to tradition this is acid areum which is Latin for a sweat cloth used by a pious woman to wipe the blood on Christ's face during his ascent to the Calvary and his face was imprinted on it the altar of st. Leo the grape is placed between two black granite columns he was the first pope to be buried in the ancient st. Peter's and his remains removed to this altar by clement xi in 1715 over the altar is the only marble altarpiece in the Basilica which was done by Alessandro ard who worked on it from 1645 to 1653 five marble blocks were used and the story was divided into two sections the scene in which the pope stops Attila and the supernatural meaning of the event in the presence of Saints Peter and Paul here we see st. Joseph standing there Byzantine style Cathedral or bishops throne with his son Jesus and his arms and a lily in bloom in his left hand an angel flying down from the sky holds a scroll ornament with a mission given to God by Joseph is inscribed it says quote you will be over my house and quote a kneeling angel offers him the ship of the church while a young man holds out an olive branch in 1605 Paul the fifth moved the relics of two apostles under this altar the monument to pope pius d8 by pietro tin irani features the pope kneeling accompanied by a statue of Christ enthroned with statues of saints peter and paul he was imprisoned in 1808 during the French domination of Italy for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon under the monument is the door leading to the sacristy and Treasury Museum in this passage is a list of all the Pope's buried in st. Peter's [Music] since 1608 the altar of st. Gregory the Great has been preserving the relics of the holy Pope inside a marble sarcophagus st. Gregory was the first to define the Pope is servant of God's servants the mosaic represents a miracle of st. Gregory Dunn from 1770 to 1772 based on the 1627 painting in the mosaic Gregory gives a piece of cloth that was on the tomb of st. Peter to a group of princes who had asked him for some precious relics they thought the relic was of little value and unhappily returned to him st. Gregory prayed then asked for a knife and pierced the cloth after which blood miraculously came out which showed the princes just how important the relic was the monument to Pope Pius the seventh who was Pope from 1802 1823 is by Danish sculptor Berthold her violin like his predecessor highest 1/7 endured imprisonment by Napoleon he restored the Jesuit Order in 1814 his Secretary of State Carnell consalvi commissioned this monument by Torvalds in who is the only Protestant sculptor in st. Peter's the papal throne is flanked by two angels at the sides on separate basis or divine fortitude wearing a lion skin and where their arms gathered to her breasts and wisdom crown with oak leaves and with her eyes cast down the altarpiece of the altar of the lie is his 1725 the 1726 mosaic work representing the punishment of the couple Ananias and Sapphira it's based on a 1604 original painting this altarpiece depicts the story in the Acts of the Apostles of the couple punished for withholding money that they have promised to the Apostles and for lying to Saint Peter if you're lying to Saint Peter saaphyri fell to the ground before the apostle in the background two young men carried the dead body of her husband and a nice it is purposely placed in front of the priest as he leaves to celebrate Mass a permanent reminder to him that he's called to give himself entirely to God and be a servant to his people causing any priest to think twice about selfishly withholding from this promise the Chapel of baptism was designed by Carla Fontana who won a competition among 20 famous artists to design it the main altarpiece mosaic from 1722 is a copy of an original painting by Mirada it represents the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist in the River Jordan the baptismal font is still used on Sundays to administer the sacrament of baptism the gilded covered rests on a sarcophagus cover used by the emperor out of the second as believed to come from the tomb of emperor hadrian the monument to the Stuart's was planned as a pyramidal funeral Monument and was finished in marble in 1829 by Antonio Canova it celebrates the last three Stewart's of English royalty James the third and his two sons here are their busts in addition to two angels who blow at the life lane with their upside-down torches symbolizing the quiet Christian submission to death [Music] well that's the end of our st. Peter's Basilica in Saint Peter's Square tour I hope you enjoyed the video and thanks for watching Andy's awesome adventures [Music] you