Yellowstone National Park Full Documentary

Author:

Planet Doc Full Documentaries

Keywords:

Yellowstone documentary,Yellowstone Documentary,Yellowstone National Park,Yellowstone Animals,Wolf Yellowstone,Yellowstone Story,Wolves,Reintroduction wolf Yellowstone,Travel to Yellowstone,Gray Wolves,Yellowstone Wolves,Bison Yellowstone,Rocky Mountains,Louisiana,National Park,Hunting of wolves,Yellowstone Bears,Wolf vs bison,Documentaries,Documentary film

Subtitles:
[Applause] [Music] at the beginning of the 19th century the American West was still an unspoiled land which was only inhabited by Native Americans [Music] this situation changed after 1803 when Louisiana was purchased from the French government a group of men commanded by Mayweather Lewis and William Clark was in to explore the area and open up a route which would allow the land to be supplied [Music] as their settlers occupied the land so these stores increased to a strange place where bison cover the prairies and boy waters sprang from the rocks in 1870 the government sent a military expedition to find this place the tales they told on the return were so extraordinary that a new expedition had to be sent to ensure that what they said was really true the first expedition had not exaggerated in the least they discovered the fabled region in the lands of the Sheep etern Shoshone Indians right in the heart of the Rocky Mountains the river that crossed it from north to south was in itself a wonder of nature in its upper part it formed the largest lake in the United States beneath this lake and after passing over an amazing waterfall the waters flowed along the inside of a 32 kilometers long Canyon yellowish rocks flanking the river gave the region its name Yellowstone coniferous forests covered 88% of the valleys and the mountain peaks claimed over 3,000 meters the region was a real natural paradise the rock is formed the main mountain range of North America this continent is moving towards the westerly pressure on the Pacific makes the Earth's crust fold so creating these awesome landscapes the formation process is not over yet the northern part of Lake Yellowstone is rising at a rate of 24 millimeters a year in 1959 an earthquake changed the course of the river Madison and created the lake quake this geological activity is what created the most fascinating of Yellowstone's landscapes some things are incredible that John Colter the first white man to see it in 1807 or Jim Bridger in 1850 were branded as lunatics when they told their tales a valley where mud bubbled stones gave off smoke and Jets of boiling water spouted from the ground nobody in their right mind could believe such far-fetched stories on seeing these landscapes it's easy to comprehend why nobody believed these stories under the Indians that inhabited these lands saw them as the place where evil spirits dwell in the park the Earth's crust is only 5 kilometers thick as opposed to an average of 50 kilometers in North America as a whole this layer is so thin that the heat from the magma below it reaches the underground waters the temperature rises in some cases to over 100 degrees centigrade and when they find a way out they appear on the surface as fumarole 's and geezers Yellowstone has the largest and most varied range of geezers in the world [Applause] [Music] life is also possible on these waters be surprising colors if these waterfalls are not due to the nature of the rock in fact they are caused by tiny algae and bacteria each species can withstand different temperatures so they do not live in these same pools the most resistant are in the upper part as the water goes down and gets cooler the weaker ones can find shelter conditions in the rest of the park are much more favorable for life and this goes on in great profusion [Music] the prairie dogs live in open spaces their burrows dug out on the ground like real cities spreading across the plain indexes of the beginning of the century a study of one such burrow discovered that it covered more than 60,000 square kilometres and had 400 million inhabitants where of the sepulveda systematically destroying the prairie over time the tall grass disappears and only the most resistant to grazing is left this has two advantages for prairie dogs low grass is their favorite food and low grass also enables them to spot coyotes with sufficient time to get away the best times for the coyote began after the gray wolf was eradicated in 1930 but in 1995 the park was resettled with great wheels and the coyote had to give up some of its territories to this more powerful competitor one of the reasons which led to the reintroduction of the wolf was to control the population of North America's second-biggest surveyed the Wapiti or elk during the summer there are herds of almost thirty thousand oaks and this puts far too much pressure on their grazing areas at this time of the year they divided up according to sex and spread across the open prairies their antlers which they had lost during the previous winter will be ready again for the autumn when the mating season begins the huapi dues are the most polygamous deer in America and now hareem's may reach 60 females per male the rookie mountain loan is much rarer there are only a few isolated groups in the highest peaks of the mountains only 150 of these animals live in Yellowstone the capacity for walking on rocks and their resistance to be cold allow them to inhabit these steep mountain peaks here there is no competition from the other large herbivores they only share this area with their predators Pumas coyotes and eagles are all prepared to reach these Heights to hunt them the pronghorn the fastest herbivore in America lives in the open spaces it can reach speeds of 80 kilometers an hour and its heart is twice as big as would normally correspond to its weight its feet are similar to it ruffs and although it sheds its horns it only loses the outer layer which falls off when a new one grows beneath it it's peculiarities do not end here in order to adapt to temperature changes they can vary the angle of their fur when it is cold there first sticks close to their skin and when it is hot it sticks out allowing air to circulate around the fur control over their fur has another important use when they sense they are in danger they stick out and flatten the white fur on their haunches intermittently the change produced by the reflection of light can be seen full kilometres away more than enough for the herd to reach safety the pronghorns share the prairies with the legendary bison both species have different diets so they do not need to compete and can live together in peace in the past millions of these colossal animals roamed North America in search of the best pastures today their migrations are limited to the Yellowstone area in the summer they graze on the high plains and they come down to lower areas during the harsh winter males and females form separate groups and come together during the mating season in July and August they can also be seen together in spring and autumn when they meet up in search for the best pastures the Bison played an important part in Indian culture it provided them with food clothing and even materials for their teepees their famous tent houses every year after Bandhan in their winter quarters the indian sentient scouts to look for the bison once they had been found the tribe moved to this area and after carrying out ceremonies so that the spirits would make the mission a success they prepared for the hunt [Music] everything changed when the white man arrived be totally unscrupulous settlers hunted the Bison indiscriminantly the railway magnets of the North Pacific so this is the way to get rid of the Indians that opposed the railway huge slaughter took place hi the businessman achieved their objective but the Messiah did not stop them killing bison had become a very profitable fashion in the railways publicity leaflets passengers were offered the possibility of hunting bison without even leaving their seats in the Train the sorter continued for almost a century during the most intensive period the dead bison were just abandoned and not even their tongues which were considered a great delicacy were collected there were so many corpses littering the prairies that businesses were created to retrieve the bones to make fertilizers when Elvira nuñez Cabeza de Vaca made this drawing in the middle of the 16th century the North American bison population was over 70 million strong by the end of the 19th century only a few hundred remains scattered around in 1920 there were 50 bison left in Yellowstone only then did people realized that the species had to be protected today there are over 3,500 in the middle of July the mating season begins in contrast to other herbivores the Bison do not group hürrem's together when a male detects a female on heat he begins to follow her and wait for the right moment each female is only receptive for 24 hours so the male cannot let her how to recite if he does not mount her in this time he will lose his chance until the following year any male may participate in the appropriation process but those under 4 years of age have little chance they are too weak to take on all the rivals in a dispute over female also they are socially inferior to the females so they are unlikely to be accepted as mates after the mating season the group separate and life returns to normal the bison graze at dawn and dusk and spend the middle of the day resting ruminating and having baths of earth in the time of the great herds hundreds of bison could be running about at the same time they kicked up so much dust that on some occasions these dust baths were mistaken for forest fires the birth of the young does not happen until the following spring after nine months gestation the females leave the group and give birth to a single infant after half an hour it is able to stand and after a few hours it can walk a few days later both of them rejoin the herd the characteristic hump and horns do not develop until they are two months old during this time the mother continues feeding the infant which will not be weaned until the end of the summer the youngster stays with its mother until it reaches sexual maturity then it must leave the group and join the males [Music] the first snows appear when winter arrives the temperatures have formed summer temperatures may reach 30 degrees centigrade but in winter the temperature rarely gets above freezing at night it may fall to 50 degrees below zero [Music] the snow's cover the pastures and it becomes none more difficult to get to them the banker does snow gets larger and larger during the winter and maybe over three metres think in the mountains the layer is even bigger ten meters of snow this is definitely the hardest time of the year of the local fauna [Music] many war bitches die during this period the survivors go to the northern region of Yellowstone which is the lowest area almost the only place where it's still possible to graze [Music] they are not the only ones the Bison have also arrived here these impressive boobs are better prepared to face the hardships of winter than the Elks bear summer fur has disappeared in its place there is a dense layer of fur several centimeters thick which covers them completely and isolates them from the cold at la spring arrives the snows melt and a new cycle of life begins the increase in temperatures brings electrical storms and fires fires every year the region is hit by several forest fires which are put out by the spring rains the most serious fire on record occurred in 1988 four hundred and seventy thousand hectares of land went up in flames before the Fire Brigades could put it out Yellowstone had lost a third of its forests and many animals had died done however these catastrophes are part of the natural cycle fire is fundamental for the regeneration of the forest the burned soil receives sunlight for the first time in many years seeds may shoot and this process is helped by a layer of ash which is rich in nutrients for the plants in just a few years new trees will have replaced the previous generation Yellowstone was declared a national park in 1872 a year after the second expedition was sent to confirm its existence 9,000 square kilometres of unspoiled land acquired for the first time in history a new legal status the objective of which was conservation the wave fall was not easy both public and private initiative put the interests of tourism before the protection of the ecosystem in 1930 the gray wolves were exterminated in a campaign against Park predators the reason given for this was that they killed the large herbivores which were the main attraction for visitors effective measures to protect the park only started to be taken in 1960s today hunting is forbidden and only 5% of the total area of the park is open to visitors after two centuries of barbarism the spirits of the Shoshone Indians may rest in peace the dwelling place has become sacred territory once again a paradise which at last has come to be respected by the white man [Music] [Music]

Loading